For the descendents of Richard Dearie and his son John Russell

Title and No 790  G23 Portion 185
Date of title. 17.2 99  Area. 25.0.31
Lessee. John Archibald Russell
Record of Work.
Dates                        Notes.
16.5.99            no coolies
1.12.99            “            “
12.7.00            66 coolies open mine
14.6.01            21 coolies open mine
18.11.01            18 coolies open mine
22.11.05            3 coolies fossicking
1.6.06                        15 coolies open mine
Dec: 06            no coolies
11.5.07            23 coolies
25.11.07            12 coolies
9.6.08                        12 coolies
17.12.08            no coolies
28.5.09            no coolies
15.12.09            18 coolies
16.12.10            120 coolies open mine & 1.10.H.P.Engine
18.12.11            100 coolies
5.11.12            9 coolies lampan
21.10.13            65 coolies open mine
23.11.14            no coolies
26.11.15            9 coolies 26.11 lampan
29.11.16            12 coolies fossicking

The Malay Mail Friday December, 1905 Summary: (Mr. J. A. Russell is present at the meeting of the Malay States Mining Association which discusses lack of supply of wood for fuel.. problem of 10 years standing.. forests are to be conserved…timber cases before magistrates.. not enough Europeans to identify kinds of timber.. J. A. suggests that specimens of prohibited timbers be provided so that they can be identified… discussion on importing trial shipments of coal from India.. J. A. suggests a Government commission to take evidence on subject.. decision on two cents fee per pikul to support Association… “For some time Mr Loke Yew has, with great public spirit, alone supported the Association; but that is not right, nor creditable to the mining industry, nor can it be expected to go on indefinitely.”.. J. A. points out that no attempt is made to collect the dues of the Association, he suggests subscription should be based on acreage, as in Perak., discussion on letter to Government to request an alteration in its rules on numbers of labourers to be employed as the condition of mining leases, to allow for use of labour saving devices like puddlers and trolleys.)

J.A. Russell and TIN MINING

Archie's first job in 1899 was with a tin mining company. In 1903, he joined the American International Tin Corporation. About this time, according to his brother Don, Archie was" appointed by the Courts as Administrator of a Chinese estate of fairly large proportions on the basis of a good monthly fee and commission. He therefore decided to start his own company and in 1904 the firm of J. A. Russell came into being." Don also says after he (Don) had returned to Malaya in 1909 Archie " had been operating a tin mine at Kepong and the writer well remembers having to pedal cycle out to the mine once a month with the wages in cash strapped to the back of the saddle. A French Syndicate became interested in the property and a sale was arranged at a good figure."

Extracts from newspapers and documents transcribed by Claire Grey unless otherwise stated.

Malay Mail Thursday July 19, 1906 Mr. A. Russell has gone to Kelantan to report on a tin mining proposition in that State, where by the by, Europeans are already applying for agricultural land for rubber planting.


The Malay Mail Monday September 3 , 1906 Notice: The “sha-hau” or working rights of the late Chop “Li Wo”- dissolved by order of the court- of their mine at Kepong, M.L. No. 397, including kongsi houses, mining implements, furniture, provisions, ore, and all other property belonging to the above mentioned Chop “ Li Wo” contained on the aforesaid land, have this day been acquired by Chop “Li Wo Sam Ki”. J. Archibald Russell, Receiver. Kuala Lumpur, 1st September 1906.

16 August 1906 Application to the Resident from J. A. Russell for a prospecting licence for 6 months over 400 acres of land in Pertak Mukim. “ Mr Russell has lately obtained 50 acres in the Chel valley and also a block of two acres at Rasa which has just been surveyed” “Return of Lessees’ Land and Labour Force.” 26 acres in Ulu Langat, 38 acres in Kuala Lumpur with a total of 219 coolies.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 4851 06


25 October 1906 Recommendation for application to the Resident from J. A. Russell for 15 acres of mining land in Ulu Klang. “Applicant holds 55 acres with 219 coolies in this district”. $10 an acre premium.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 6029 06

The Malay Mail, Wednesday, 6 November 1906 Yew Thye Kongsi’s Mine. Opening ceremony. “The ceremony of the opening of the hydraulic installation on Messrs Loke Yew and Chow Thye’s mine at Serendah was performed by Mr. H. C. Belfield on Monday before a large gathering of visitors.” ( 175 people attended.. entrance to mine decorated.. state band playing.. firecrackers let off.. procession address to Mr. Belfield.. first hydraulic installation in Selangor.. Mr. Belfield set the water going.. party returned to marquee.. light refreshments and speeches..Mr Belfield. .. introduction of hydraulic machinery into State… been previous employed in Perak, and later in Negri Sembilan… previous ways of mining.. water- wheels.. mine would revive township of Serendah..other speeches.. Mr. A. G. Mackie..Mr. G. Cumming.. Mr. C. E. Spooner.. Mr. H. W. Brett, Mr. Robertson engineer on the mine.. Mr. Frank Adam… the taking of a group photograph. Technical details of mine..dam built of concrete.. silting tank ditch.. nozzles.. 430 acres..strong lode.. Messrs. Robertson and Co. obtained option in August..shares taken up.. capital oversubscribed.. working expenses $4,000 per month.
The Straits Echo Mail Edition 22 March 1907 Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Co Ltd. General Meeting. ( Held in KL. Loke Chow Thye took chair. Company went to allotment on 7th Dec last year.. took possession of mine on Dec 1st, vendors paid $810,000 for property.. area is three leases… Mr. Rene Proust appointed manager..on Jan 1st.. outputs,, dressed ore sold to S.T... three monitors at work.., three months since Co. was formed. auditors.. 50 trial pits.. thanks to directors.)
19 August 1907 Application to the Resident from J. A. Russell for 5 acres mining land at Sungei Puron ,Semenyih. “ Mr. Russell owns in this district 100 acres with 103 coolies.” Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 4752 07
23 October 1907 Application to the Resident from J. A. Russell and A.S. Baxendale for prospecting licences for 592 acres of land in Petaling. “ Mr Baxendale holds no mining land in Selangor, Mr. Russell is registered as holder of 159 acres on which there are employed 220 coolies… he has one or two other applications under consideration including one for a prospecting licence over 800 acres lying between Kopong and Damansara. I recommend that Mr. Baxendale as prior applicant be given preference, and that Mr. Russell be offered a prospecting licence over the available balance..” Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 5694 07
Selangor Government Gazette Jan 31 1908 No 4 Vol.XIX Notice of Loss of Document Title. J.A. Russell “committee of the Estate of Khoo Khye Cheah.. for certified copy of mining lease in Ulu Yam district of Ulu Selangor.
The Straits Times, 28 February 1908, Page 8 Serendah Mine. FIRST GENERAL MEETING OF THE SHAREHOLDERS. Vote of Want of Confidence in the Directors Proposed. The first ordinary general meeting of the Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Company, Limited, was held at the offices of the company in Barrack Road, Kuala Lumpur, on Monday. Mr. Loke Chow Thye took the chair, and among those present were Messrs. Loke Yew, Kong Lam and J H Robertson (directors), H C E Zacharias, A G Glassford, J. A. Russell, W. Walsh, R. F. Grey, D. G. Robertson, R. H. M. Robson, A. S. Baxendale, Loke Chow Kit, L. R. Yzelman, J. E. Bach, Kam Chuan, Tong Tak Hin, R. Proust, Yok Choi and A. Butchart (Secretary). After the Secretary had to read the notice, convening meeting, the chairman said that it gave him great pleasure to meet the shareholders. Mr. Chow Thye then dealt with the directors’ report and the accounts, and said that during the 13 months, they had sluiced 716,000 cubic yards, covering an area of about 12 acres, out of which they had obtained 8,559 piculs. Prospecting operations during the year had been carried out over 70 acres, out of a total of 429 acres. 140 pits had been sunk at an average depth of 40 feet, and the average came out thirteen tahils 2 chee’s per cubic yard. You will note, said the chairman, that on the figures shown in the output and the number of cubic yards sluiced, the average value per cubic yard was one 1.2 catties. Rich Area. The area we prospected is naturally not equally rich. We took a general value of the hall ground. In the course of general work, we struck three great dykes carrying stanniferous materials, which were much richer than the immediately adjoining country. This accounts for the difference in the pitting as compared with actual all working results. After reading extracts from Mr. Rene Proust’s reports for December and January, Mr. Chow Thye said that the time to work out the area prospected was estimated at 8 years, and in conclusion congratulated the shareholders on possessing a very valuable property. Mr. Zacharias said that, as the accounts were for a period of 13 months, they were not so rosy as their worthy chairman had tried to make out. Every cloud had a silver lining, and in this case the silver lining was the directors fees ($20,822.46)……….. (Summary: the article continues describing Mr. Zacharias’ disapproval of the above, and of paying out dividends on anticipated profits, excessive directors fees, and proposed a vote of no confidence in the directors. Mr. Chow Thye replies, blames the shareholders for not reading the small print, and says this is not the place to raise objections. Mr. Robson says shares had dropped in value and that directors had been selling them. Mr. Zacharius resolution is dropped. Further discussion on directors’ fees, and on how many meetings they had attended. The accounts and report are passed. One new director: Mr. Chow Kit is elected.)

Application from J. A. Russell, Kuala Lumpur, 6th April 1908 to District Officer, Ulu Langat, for a prospecting Licence. Sir, I have the honour to apply on behalf of the estate of Khoo Khye Cheah for a prospecting licence over the land comprised in Grant 3230, Portion 275, Mukim of Ulu Langat, with the right of, if proved to be stanniferous, converting the same to mining land. 2. The land is at present mainly covered with lalang (1) and blukar,(2) being too high to plant padi upon. 3. Being below any padi land, mining upon this block will in no way interfere with any native holdings. 4. The land, if only partly stanniferous (3) , is large enough to work on a large scale and for a period of many years, and will prove of great benefit to the town of Ulu Langat, which, unless fresh mining land is discovered must disappear as soon as the Bukit Arang lands are exhausted; a possibility. I understand from the Chinese of Ulu Langat, likely to occur at no distant date. 5. The Estate of Khoo Khye Cheah was at one time one of the most prosperous and largest of mining operators in the State, but for the last five years since the lunacy of the owner has been grossly mismanaged, and I have been appointed by the Court and parties interested to retrieve and put it into sound basis again, and it is imperative in order to effect the same that all land and other property of the Estate to be turned to the best account possible. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, Sd. J. A. Russell Committee of the Estate of Khoo Khye Cheah.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 2728/08

Letter from District Office, Kajang, 21st May 1908 to the Secretary to Resident Selangor. Application from Mr. J. A. Russell for a prospecting license. Sir, I have the honour to report that application has been made by Mr. J. A Russell, Committee of Estate of Khoo Kai Seah, for a prospecting License over the 89 acres of land comprised in grant 3230, the property of the Estate. 2. I attach a tracing of the land, which has the frontage along the 14th mile of the Ulu Langat road. 3. The reasons prompting the application are set out in Mr. Russell’s letter of 6th April which I attach. 4. I am unable to support the application. I have shewn by blue hatching on the tracing the position of a number of padi fields now in course of preparation for planting, and there is a large Durian Duson about the spot marked with the red cross. Further it is within my recollection that most of this land was under cultivation some years back, and its partial abandonment would seem to have dated from the time it was acquired (in 1899) by the present owner and Low Loon Tit. 5. The locality is an agricultural one, and the grant of mining rights would almost inevitably lead to trouble over water supply. 6. The present title was issued in 1904 in exchange for Extracts, which had been issued to replace old Agreements-for–Leases. 7. I recommend that the application be refused. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your Obedient Servant, ? District officer, Ulu Langat.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 2728/08

30 June 1908 Sanction from the Resident to grant 2 mining licences to J. A. Russell. 5 acres of land at Ulu Sungei Purun in Semenyih and another 5 acres in same locality.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 3210 08

22 July 1908 Approval of alienation of 112 acres of mining land at Batu Makim to Mr. J. A. Russell. Mr. Russell already owns 230 acres of mining land, with 155 coolies working it.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 3662 08

Malay Mail Thursday February 25 1909 Serendah Hydraulic Tin Annual General Meeting. The AGM of the shareholders of the Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Co. Ltd. was held at the company’s offices in Barrack Road yesterday at mid-day. Mr. Loke Chow Thye took the chair, and those present included Messrs. Loke Chow Kit, D. G. Robertson, J.E. Bach, W. Nicholas, A. Russell, R.F. Grey, E.R Yzelman, E.A.O. Travers, J.H.M. Robson, S. Raffles, J. Brown, Lee Kong Lam, and C. W. Hewgill, F.E. Maynard ( attorney for Mr. A. C. Harper) A. Dubois (manager of the mine) and A. Butchart (secretary) (Summary: Chairman’s speech. Decreased output, management change. Mr. Proust resigned. reduced expenditure. working good and bad.. condition of flumes and ditch line.. questions by Mr. Robson and Mr. Yzelman.. election of directors. Mr. Loke Yew had resigned his seat on directorate.. auditors. directors remuneration.. directors visits to mine..)

Letter from District Officer of Ulu Langat District Office, Kajang, 15 November 1909 to The Secretary to Resident, Selangor. U.L.Lds 430/09 Application from Mr. J. A. Russell for a prospecting licence over Grant 3230 Sir, With reference to your papers S. R. 2728/08 on which prospecting rights were refused to Mr. Russell over land comprised of grant No. 3230 Por: 273 Ulu Langat I have the honour to report that I have received a further application from Mr. Russell to prospect and convert that portion of the land marked in red on attached tracing- the approximate area being 58 acres. 2. The refusal on the above papers might I think be reconsidered as there are already a dozen mining blocks just across the river from Sungei Sop and the Inspector of Mines writes: “This would be an ideal spot for open cast work which is an excellent thing and no damage would be done to any adjoining lands. The padi fields lie over the main road and others lie over the main river quite out of harm’s way.” 3. This portion of land is too high for padi and is in lalang and bluker with no cultivation on it but about a dozen durian trees. 4. I attach a copy of Mr. Russell’s letter and recommend the grant of a prospecting licence at a fee of $50 for a period of 6 months with the right to convert to mining at $25 per acre premium- open cast mining only to be allowed if converted. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, R. Clay? Ag: District Officer Ulu Langat.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 2728/08

Malay Mail Saturday August 6, 1910 List of Mining Companies: Serendah Hyd. Tin Min. Co. Ltd. Established 1906, Capital paid: $850,000,?lease value: $10, Paid up: $10 Dividends: 1907: 27 and a half per cent, 1908 10%, 1909 10%, Quotation $5.50
The Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal. Vol II, No. 11 9th May 1913. Selangor Miners’ Association How the Tin is Really Won. The first meeting of the new Committee of the Selangor Miners’ Association was held a few days ago, Mr. J. A. Russell, the newly elected president, presiding. Several proposals and ideas of an eminently practical nature were suggested. Most of them would seem to have been of a decidedly useful and helpful character; as, for instance, the decision to translate into Chinese, and circulate amongst the Chinese members of the Association, all matters appearing in the Government Gazette affecting either miners in general or individual members in particular. When it is considered that according to the lately published annual Report for 1912 of the Senior Warden of Mines, eighty per cent of the tin won for that year in the F.M.S. was produced from Chinese mines, and when we remember how few these Chinese ever see the Government Gazette, or could read it if they did, the practical and commonsense usefulness of such a measure upon the part of the Selangor Miners’ Association will be instantly appreciated. Of course it is not quite business- like to accept without reservation the apparent inference lying on the face of the Senior Warden’s figures. The 20 per cent of the total production of tin ore which the Senior Warden ascribes to non-Chinese sources is really meant to refer, we imagine, only to the production of those European limited liability companies who furnish returns. But there must be several Europeans and others not Chinese who work by what may perhaps be described as the Chinese system; that is to say, where the land owner, or it may be the sub-lessee, erects bangsals, cuts taliayers, makes advances against ore, etc. and generally finances a lesser Towkay or “kepala” working on a sixth month or yearly agreement, and in whose name the mine nominally is. Over half the mines in the country are probably worked on this system, and there must be several Europeans and others besides Chinese, who operate on this method. It is, it should be explained, not merely a collecting of tribute; the landowner or sub lessee has to take a great interest in the workings as has the tenant-towkay or kepala. He has to have his own staff of overseers visiting and supervising his various mines and advising as to their management. The Chinese have found this system to be, on the whole, the most suitable for the average class of ordinary mining land- but few blocks of staniferous ground being Tronohs in embryo- and, naturally, those Europeans whose knowledge of the country and of the people enable them to work on a similar basis, do so. After all, the principal thing for the ultimate good of the country is to make the average class of mining property, not too rich and somewhat patchy, payable, and the Chinese’s co-operative method would seem, if not particularly showy in outward appearance, still, by giving all concerned an interest in the profits, to achieve this happy result. We believe the late Mr. Yzelman, one of the largest miners in Selangor, worked almost entirely on these lines, and we understand there are several others, including the present President of the Selangor Miners’ Association, who almost exclusively employ the same method. Ore from such mines as these, however, especially the smaller ones, would probably be credited to Chinese and non-European or other non-Chinese sources. Still there is no getting way from the fact that the bulk of the ore produced in the F.M.S. is won from Chinese owned mines, and from the great total of smaller and not the few bigger mines.

Letter: From District Officer U. Langat, District office, Kajang, 6th November, 1912 to Secretary to Resident, Selangor Kuala Lumpur. Subject. Application by Mr. D. O. Russell for mining rights over agricultural Grant No. 3230 of Ulu Langat. Sir, With reference to your correspondence No. 2728/08, I have the honour to report that Mr. D. O. Russell has renewed the application for mining rights over agricultural grant No. 3230 of Ulu Langat, part of the estate of Khoo Khye Chiah 2. The inspector of mines writes as follows: 1. No damage should accrue to other interests if reasonable care were taken. 2. By open cast methods- the land would be ruined for agricultural purposes afterwards- which could largely be avoided by bucket- dredging.” 3. The land is on the side of the road, and though mostly in lalang it contains durian dusun. A mine in this locality would be a blot on a somewhat picturesque landscape, and I see no reason for recommending that the decision already given be reversed. I have the honour to be Sir, Your obedient servant, F. Gayle, Dictrict Officer, U. Langat. (Attached map)

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia 2728/08

The Straits Times, 8 April 1914, Page 9. ACTING COLONIAL ENGINEER. Farewell Banquet to Mr. Eyre Kenny. . Mr. W. Eyre Kenny, Senior Warden of Mines, F. M.S., who is leaving Kuala Lumpur for Singapore to-day to act as Colonial Engineer was on Monday the principal guest of the leading Chinese and European mineowners of the State who entertained him to a dinner at the Selangor Mines’ association. The chair was taken by Mr. J. A Russell, who was supported by Mr. L. Chow Thye, and some thirty or more miners were present. Besides the guest of honour, the only other guests were Mr. Kenny’s successor in office, Mr. G. D. Lucas, the officers of the Selangor Mines Department and the Hon. W. F. Nutt, without whom, as the chairman put it, no Selangor miner’s dinner could possibly be considered complete. 0. Speeches were made in English, Malay and in various and peculiar sounding dialects of Chinese, expressing in all these many tongues the sentiments of esteem and respect with which the whole mining community regarded Mr. Kenny, and also congratulating him on his new appointment, the chairman confidently predicting that in Mr. Kenny’s career would be witnessed a parallel with that of Sir Henry McCallum. 0. Mr. Kenny in a well–worded reply, thanked the miners for their kind sentiments during the evening, and also for their unfailing assistance and good-will during his tenure of the office of Senior Warden. He also gave some interesting anecdotes of experiences in may parts of the world during the course of a very varied career. 0. The Hon. W. F. Nutt, in replying for the other guests, spoke on many problems vital to the interests and to the welfare of miners, and especially Chinese miners in the F.M.S.
The Straits Times, 18 March 1914, Page 9 and The Malay Daily Chronicle, page 8. 0. SERENDAH HYDRAULIC. Syndicate's Offer and Dividend Outlook. 0. The following is the report of the directors of Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Company to be submitted at the eighth ordinary general meeting of shareholders to be held at the company's office, the Pharmacy Buildings, Kuala Lumpur, on Wednesday, 25th inst.:- 0. The directors now submit the duly audited balance sheet of the Company as at December 31, 1913. The gross profit for the year was $18,099.48. 0. Adding the sum of $4,372.87 brought forward from last account, there is a sum of $21,472.35 available which your directors recommend should be disposed of as follows: 0. (a) Write off the value of the pipe line…$6,754.41 0. Pipe line building and furniture… $7,686.98 0. Pipe Tools and Plant…$2,879.02 0. Pipe crushing plant…$3,642.60 0. (b) Carry forward to next account…$509.33 $21,472.35 The company’s share of ore from the tributers during the year was piculs 418.90, realizing the sum of $23,336.65. Negotiations are being conducted with a local syndicate who have offered to take over the mine on a two year’s lease at a fixed monthly premium tribute with an additional percentage on all ore gained, the syndicate to upkeep the pipe line ditches and dams. In the event of these negotiations being satisfactorily concluded practically all management expenses would cease and it is expected that the company would at the end of the year be in a position to resume the payment of dividends. In terms of the articles of association Mr. J.A. Russell now retires from the board but offers himself for re-election. The auditors Messrs. Neill and Bell, retire and offer themselves for re-election.
The Malay Mail, Thursday April 9, 1914, page 9 Selangor Miners. Annual General Meeting The Years Working. The annual general meeting of the Selangor Miners’ Association was held on the 3rd instant at the Association’s Building. Mr. J. A. Russell being in the chair. The Chairman, in reviewing the work of the year, mentioned that the two most important items of work done were, firstly, the drafting up and presenting to Government of a lengthy petition on various matters affecting the interests of the mining industry in Selangor, and secondly the arrangement whereby the Selangor Association became affiliated with the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines and obtained representation on the Council. Since the presentation of their petition it was noticeable that the Government was not so drastic in its enforcement of many of the regulations and restrictions regarding which the petition complained. The thanks of the Committee were due to Mr. Mungo Park and the others who had done so much good work in connection with preparing this petition. The suggestion, when the question of joining the F.M.S. Chamber was mooted, that he, the Chairman of the Association, had made to the effect that the Selangor body should be abolished had met with strong opposition, members feeling that such a step would be premature until the F.M.S. Chamber had been in existence a sufficiently long enough time to prove that it really did represent F.M.S. interests and was not merely the old Perak Chamber under a new name. It would moreover, to prove that it not only represented European interests but, like the Selangor Association, also represented the interests of the Chinese mine owner. This being the feeling, he had withdrawn his suggestion, and it had been decided that the Selangor Miners’ Association should not be dissolved. Their membership now numbered 90 members, individual or mining firms. In September last they had dispensed with the services of their Assistant Secretary, but it being found that there was more work to do than the present Secretary, Mr. Lo Man Kam, could adequately cope with, and it was imperative that they should engage an extra Secretary, preferably a European. The thanks of the Association were due to Messrs. Huttenbach and Co. for presenting them with an electric light installation and to Mr. Choo Kia Peng for raising from members during the early part of the year a special donation fund; and also to Mr. L. Chow Thye for a special loan for the Association. Mr. J. A. Russell was then elected President, while Mr. Choo Kia Peng was elected Vice President for the coming year, Mr. L. Chow Thye did not wish to stand as he intended very shortly leaving for China. The usual European and Chinese Committee for the Kuala Lumpur District and outstations were then elected. Increased Wharfage Dues on Tin. After the election a discussion took place on the increased wharfage fees on tin and tin ore charged at Port Swettenham. The feeling was very strong that the Government should have notified the miners about this proposed increase. It was understood that the European Chamber of Commerce had been consulted, but not the miners who would have to pay the increased charges on tin and tin ore. The Government would not have consulted the Miners’ Association on the subject of the import of soap or beer, or the European Chamber of Commerce on questions connected with planting, therefore it was not right that that a question affecting the greatest industry of the country should be referred to by the Government to a body of import traders, and the miners themselves, presumably by an oversight, forgotten. The question was for this reason, quite as much one of principle as of the actual amount of the fresh impost; although that latter would be no inconsiderable amount. The subject had been referred to the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines who had written promising to take up the matter strongly. There was also reason to believe that tin dealers in Singapore would also be willing to assist them in moving in the matter. The meeting terminated with a vote of thanks to the chair.
The Straits Times, 8 August 1914, Page 10 . Selangor Miners. KEEPING ORDER AND HELPING DESTITUTE. 0. F.M.S. Government Thanked.. A meeting of practically all the leading mine-owners in Selangor was heId on Wednesday evening at the Selangor Miners' association building in Kuala Lumpur, with Mr. J. A. Russell in the chair. The Malay Mail says the meeting was perhaps the most largely attended of any meeting of mine owners ever held in Selangor. Although only convened at the shortest of notice, leading mine- owners arrived by the evening mail from Kuala Kubu and the other out- stations to attend. There was great applause when the chairman mentioned that they had been given to understand that the government would support and protect the tin- mining industry whatever happened. The present arrangements were explained and questions answered. Mr. A.A. Henggeler informed the meeting of the arrangements made for buying ore containing wolfram. Mine owners were exhorted to act together and loyally to support the government in keeping order and helping those destitute. The following resolutions were all passed nem.con., the vote of thanks to the Government and the resolutions to keep mines open and to allow coolies to work mines co-operatively being carried with enthusiasm:- 0. Resolutions Passed. 0. 1. The representatives of the mining community of the State of Selangor here assembled wish to express to the F.M.S. Government their deepest and sincerest gratitude and appreciation of the action of the Government in supporting the tin market, and, by the purchase of tin at the present juncture, thus averting a terrible calamity. And it is further resolved that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the Chief Secretary and to the British Resident, Selangor. 0. Committees of management. 0. 2. The representatives of the mining community of Selangor here assembled also wish to express their gratitude and appreciation of the action of the Government in taking steps to control the sale of foodstuffs. 0. 3. This meeting does hereby resolve that it is the duty of the mine- owners in the State to assist the Government to the fullest extent of their power and ability in keeping open and at full work all tin mines owned by them. 0. 4. This meeting does hereby resolve that any mine worked at a loss on wages should not be closed down and the labour force disbanded, but that the mine should be handed over to the coolies to work on the fan-tszka or co-operative system. 0. 5. This meeting does hereby resolve that it notes with approval the decision of the Government temporarily to suspend the provisions of the Labour Code as regards truck and the payment of coolies. 0. 6. This meeting does hereby resolve that all mine- owners be asked during the continuance of the present crisis to feed their coolies and to pay each coolie a sum of two dollars a month, the balance of wages over and above such amount of $2 to be settled in cash, after deducting the net cost price of provisions supplied, on the return to normal conditions. 0. 7. This meeting does hereby resolve that mine- owners be asked to reduce all mine wages by a minimum reduction of twenty per cent upon the rate of wages now being paid. 0. 8. This meeting does hereby resolve that it is the opinion of the meeting that there is no reason why the mining industry and trade in general of the State should not continue quietly and calmly until such time as the affairs of the world are again more normal. 0. 9. This meeting does hereby resolve that a circular embodying these resolutions shall be printed in the Chinese language and issued to mine- owners and others in the State of Selangor. 0. Committee of management 0. 10. This meeting does hereby resolve that a committee be formed to arrange for the distribution of notices in Chinese informing the Chinese community of the present Government tin buying arrangements and of other matters that arise or may from time to time arise in connection with the present situation and the preservation of tranquility amongst the Chinese mining community, and it is further resolved that this committee consist of the President of the Selangor Miners’ Association Mr. J. A. Russell, the Vice president of the Selangor Miners’ Association Mr. Cho Kia Peng, and the following gentlemen representing the Cantonese, Kheh and Hokkien mining communities:- Mr. L. Kong Lam, M.C. Mr. Chan Sow Lin, M.C. Mr. C. Kam Chuan, Mr. Chong Yoke Choy, Mr. Yap Loong Hin, Mr. San Ah Wing, Mr. Low Leong Gan, Mr. Khoo Hock Cheong and Mr. Loke Chow Kit. 0. The following resolution was proposed by Mr. L. Man Pan and seconded by Mr. Koh Yew Kee, the chairman alone dissenting:- This meeting does hereby resolve that the Government be asked during the continuation of the present crisis to remit the collection of duty upon firewood used upon mines.
The Straits Times 13 April 1914, Page 8 and The Malay Mail Thursday April 9. 1914, page 9: Mining Within Town Limits. An application from Mr. J. A. Russell to mine 9 acres of land situated in Sungei Besi township was considered at the last meeting of the Kuala Lumpur Sanitary Board and, on the suggestion of the chairman, it was resolved to recommend that the application be granted on a ten year’s lease providing for the filling up of the holes as work proceeds, also for compliance with the Board’s instructions as to drainage, stagnant water etc. Mr Choo Kia Peng and Mr H P Clodd disagreed on the ground that it would be creating a precedent if mining operations were allowed within the Sanitary Board’s area.
The Straits Times 11 July 1914 Page 9 UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE F.M.S. Government Proposals to Meet Difficulty FOOC KL July 10 At the request of the Selangor miners, Mr. J. A. Russell and Choo Kia Peng called on the Resident the other day to discuss the unemployment of mining coolies and suggested that the Government should prepare for the continuation or aggravation of the evil. The Resident discussed the matter fully and said Government were already giving the matter attention. Should matters grow worse, they would undertake several large labour employing works.
The Straits Times, 19 August 1914, Page 10 . Government and Miners. The following letter has been received by Mr. J. A. Russell, as chairman of the meeting of Selangor miners held on August 5, acknowledging the receipt from him of a letter expressing the vote of thanks to the Government for supporting the tin market, passed at that meeting. Sir, - I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 8th instant and to say that the Resident is gratified to learn that the action of the Government has given such general satisfaction to the mine owners of the State and that he thanks them for the expression of their gratitude and appreciation. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant (Sd.) O.F. Stonor, Secretary to Resident, Selangor.
The Malay Mail, Friday October, 23, 1914 and The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 28 October 1914, Page 8 MALAYAN MINERS. [Articles] 0. MALAYAN MINERS. Government's Buying Rate Mr. J. A. Russell writes to the Editor of the Malay Mail as follows:- 0. Sir, In the issue of the Malay Mail of yesterday I notice that your Ipoh correspondent criticizes the Government for reducing their tin buying price from $6O to $57 a pikul. It is not however, generally known that the Government’s lowest buying limit has from the first been stated by them to be this figure of $57, but that though at this limit the Government said they would be prepared to purchase the whole of the F.M.S. tin production for a period, if necessary, of six months, still they would endeavor if it could possibly be done to give miners a higher rate of $60 a pikul. 0. The Selangor Miner’s Association, fearing that the Government resources might be inadequate to the strain of continuing to purchase at $60, asked me to approach them with a suggestion that miners should have the option either of selling outright at $60 or of taking an advance only. Presumably the Government funds were ample, for they refused to consider the scheme put before them. 0. The Government is now reducing the buying price to their limit of $57 are thus not breaking any former promise; but, unfortunately although the Selangor Miner’s Association did their best at the time to make known the conditions on which Government intended to purchase, it is feared that many Chinese miners paid but little heed to what the association said on this subject. The reason for this lack of attention to what the association had to say was due to the Government not dealing more directly with the various mining associations of the F.M.S. so that Chinese miners became skeptical as to how much the association really knew. 0. It has consequently and unhappily become firmly fixed in the minds of the majority of Chinese miners that the Government’s minimum price was always intended to be $60, so that when without warning the quotation was dropped to $57 a panic seized them. 0. I think I may confidently say that the majority of the mines being worked at $60 have been doing so at a loss, and that rather than close them down their owners have hoped for better times and continued mining. But this unheralded fall has now scared them and weakened their belief in the strength of the Government. They do not know where the fall is going to stop. So the struggle has been given up, and they are closing their places down. 0. It is needless to point out what this is going to mean to the general trade, to the revenue, and to the labouring classes of the country. They all mainly depend upon the continuation of the tin- mining industry. Yet in my opinion, this unfounded panic as to the future with its disastrous consequences, might to a great extant have been mitigated had the Government in the first place communicated more directly with the various mining associations as to their buying scheme, and, in the second place, have given a day’s notice and some explanation before suddenly reducing their buying rate by $3.
The Straits Times, 3 January 1916, Page 12 F.M.S. Chamber of Mines. At the last Council Meeting held on December 20, the following were present Messrs. J. Boy, A. H. Flowerdew, J. Descraques, L. Q. Attenborough, E. J. Vallentine, and the secretary (Mr. A. Towers). In the absence of the President and the Vice- President, Mr. Vallentine was voted into the chair. Messages expressing regret at their inability to attend, were received from the Hon. Mr. Eu Tong Sen, and Messrs. J A. Russell and A.A. Hengellor. The seal of the chamber, which recently arrived from England, was duly adopted. (Summary: the meeting decides to ask the government to recognize French diplomas in electricity, and asks if there is any possibility of a technical school in Ipoh “ for Training Asiatics to acquire a sufficient knowledge of electricity to enable them to meet local demand” Mr. Brash is elected President and Mr. Vallentine Vice president.” The secretary will be pleased to receive from members specimens of tin and other minerals for the reception of which a show case has been acquired”.
The Straits Times, 12 August 1915, Page 10 Kuala Lumpur Comments. (From Our Own Correspondent.) Kuala Lumpur, August 11. A large number of prospectors, representing syndicates in Perak and Selangor, is now at Mersing Johore, where there is quite a rush for tin land: so much so that the Johore Government following the precedent of the F.M.S. refuses to grant applications for land indiscriminately and calls for tenders. Among those who have been commissioned to prospect for Kuala Lumpur Syndicates, is Mr. Mungo Park, formerly of the Mines Department and now of Malayan Collieries, Limited.
The Straits Times, 31 March 1916, Page 2 0. F.M.S. Chamber of Mines. 0. COUNCIL MEETINGS TO BE HELD IN SELANGOR. 0. Mr. Valentine Elected President. 0. The annual general meeting of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines was held at the Chamber's office in Ipoh, on Saturday afternoon, reports the Times of Malaya. Mr. R. P. Brash, President, occupied the chair, and the other members present were: Hon. Payne Gallway, Messrs. H. W. Metcalfe, E .J. Valentine, A. Flowerdew, Chiah Kee Ee, Ho Pak Ling, A. C. Perkins, Khoo Chiam Seang, L.G. Attenborough, Lee Swee Hoe, F. Pearce, Lam Looking and A. J. C. Towers, secretary. 0. The chairman addressed the meeting briefly in proposing adoption of the annual report and statement of accounts of the Chamber for the past year. Summary: Their president Mr. Alma Baker had resigned as he is leaving the country, so Mr. Brash had been elected in his place. 15 members of the council were elected. Nominations for different districts (Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembillan, and Pahang) included J. A. Russell. He is elected as one of 3 members for Selangor. Mr. Valentine is elected president and Mr. Attenborough as Vice President. 0. Mr. Valentine said he had received a letter from Mr. Kee Kiap Peng of KL asking if the Chamber could hold meetings in KL as well as Ipoh. After discussion it is agreed that two council meetings yearly be held in Selangor.
The Straits Times, 4 April 1916, Page 6 Our Kuala Lumpur correspondent wires that at the Selangor Miners Association annual meeting, Mr J.A. Russell presiding, Mr. Yap Long Him was elected president, Mr. Russell temporary vice- president, Mr. Choo Kia Peng, secretary, and Messrs. Russell, Kia Peng, representatives to the Council of the F.M.S. chamber of Mines.
The Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal, 5th April 1916, Vol. V., No. 7, p.13 Serendah Hydraulic At an extraordinary general meeting of the Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Company Limited, to be held at the Registered office of the Company No. 1 Embankment, Kuala Lumpur on 28th inst. The following resolution will be proposed as an extraordinary resolution- “That the capital of the Company be reduced from $850,000 ( divided into 85,000 shares of $10 each) to $170,000 divided into 85,000 shares of $2 each and that such reduction be effected by cancelling capital which has been lost or is unrepresented by available assets to the extent of $8 per share upon each of the said 85,000 shares and by reducing the nominal amount of all the shares in the Company’s capital from $10 to $2.”
The Straits Times, 4 July 1916, Page 8 0. F.M.S. CHAMBER OF MINES. Proceedings at Recent Council Meeting. The Secretary of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines, forwards the following resume of recent proceedings:- At the Council meeting held on June 26 the following were present Mr. L. G. Attenborough (President) in the chair, the Hon. Mr. A. Payne Gallwey (Vice President), Messrs. Cheah Cheang Lim, J. Boy, C. Pearse, A. C. Perkins, A. H. Flowerdew (representing Mr. J. A. Russell), and the secretary Mr. A. C. J. Towers. 0. Summary: Regret at death of past member Mr. G. W. Wilson. Communication from member in Negri Sembilan not discussed since it was sub judice. Shortage of supplies of explosives discussed. Mr. S. B. Greenstill manager of Sungei Gau Mine elected representative for Pahang. Visit to Malayan Tin Dredging Mine arranged for Sept 25, arrangements for visit to Kramat Pulai at later date. Letters from members with monthly outputs. Outputs for Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang listed. Total output 33,665 piculs ore. Council members from Perak control half the output from there. 0. No dinner had been held for 2 years and it was decided that none should be held while the war lasted. 0. Mr. Metcalfe voted to replace Mr. Valentine who has left the country. Council are pleased to be a part of a message sent to Admiral of Grand Fleet. 0. “ Admiral Jellicoe, Grand Fleet. Malayan Chamber of Commerce, Planters Association, Chamber Mines unite in offering congratulations Jutland victory. Please convey specially Captain Officers crew H.M.S. Malaya our pride and gratification on their share of action” 0. Alienation of land to Germans after war was discussed. Reminders of next meeting in K.L. on July 15, at 10am and that they have been kindly invited by Mr. J. A. Russell to visit the Malayan Collieries the following morning.
Letter: From the Collector of Land Revenue Kula Lumpur, Land Office, Kuala Lumpur 5th February to the Secretary to Resident. Application by J.A. Russell for renewal of M.L. 790 of Ampang Mukim. Sir, I have the honour to report of an application dated 2nd January, 1917, from Mr. J.A Russell for renewal of Mining lease No. 790 of Ampang Mukim (tracing attd.) 2. I put up the history of the land and census figures of the lessee. The Warden of Mines recommends renewal for 3 years. 3. I support the recommendation. The lease expires on 4.2.1918. I have the honour to be , Sir, your obedient servant Ch ? Collector of land Revenue, Kuala Lumpur. Document in the National Archives of Malaysia: 704/1917

Title and No 790  G23 Portion 185
Date of title. 17.2 99  Area. 25.0.31
Lessee. John Archibald Russell
Record of Work.
Dates                        Notes.
16.5.99           no coolies
1.12.99           “            “
12.7.00           66 coolies open mine
14.6.01           21 coolies open mine
18.11.01        18 coolies open mine
22.11.05         3 coolies fossicking
1.6.06            15 coolies open mine
Dec: 06           no coolies
11.5.07           23 coolies
25.11.07         12 coolies
9.6.08            12 coolies
17.12.08         no coolies
28.5.09           no coolies
15.12.09         18 coolies
16.12.10         120 coolies open mine & 1.10.H.P.Engine
18.12.11         100 coolies
5.11.12           9 coolies lampan
21.10.13         65 coolies open mine
23.11.14         no coolies
26.11.15         9 coolies 26.11 lampan
29.11.16         12 coolies fossicking

The Straits Times, 4 March 1918, Page 8 SOCIAL AND PERSONAL. The Straits Echo hears that Mr. J. A. Russell, of the Malayan Collieries, is about to start wolfram mining on a concession that he has recently purchased in Kedah.
Malay Mail, Monday, May 7, 1917, page 8 Selangor Miners Association’s Annual Meeting The Year’s Work On Wednesday April 18th, the Selangor Miner’s association held their annual meeting in the Association Buildings with Mr. Yap Loong Hin (the President) in the chair. (Summary: annual report..accounts.. election of officers.. elected to serve on general committee J. A. Russell.. membership is now 92… held 8 meetings during year..during year under review important subjects included stopping of lampan licences in Ulu Selangor district, registration of sub leases, over milled rice, carrying capacity of bullock carts being restricted to 45 cubic feet..ore prices..members thanks to chairman.)
From The F.M.S. Chamber of Mines Magazine. No. 3 June 1917 Mine Returns. From Privately owned Mines controlled by members of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines. ( List of mine owners, state, output in pikuls in 1917 from January to May, Loke Chow Thye and Tan Kim Bee in Selangor)
The Straits Times, 10 September 1917, Page 8 The Straits Times 10 September 1917 page 8 It is stated that Mr. J. H. Russell, Kuala Lumpur, has taken up 2,000 acres of mining land in Kedah, which may be developed by a small company with its headquarters in Kuala Lumpur.
From The F.M.S. Chamber of Mines Magazine. No 4 September 1917 (Council meeting J. A. Russell expresses regret at not being able to attend.) Minutes of The Selangor Miners’ Association Extraordinary General Meeting held at the Association’s Chamber on Friday, the 13th July 1917 at 6.30pm with Mr. Choo Kia Peng in the chair. (15 present including J. A. Russell….. all miners in Selangor to contribute 2% of tin ore sold in August to the sailors day fund..to provide relief for sailors disabled or dependents of those killed in action.. suggested that association support this and form a sub committee to approach the miners… discussion Mr. J. A. Russell further amended that that 2% on the proceeds should be deducted by tin ore buyers from all sellers, the tin ore buyers being requested by the miners to do this for them. Mr. Chew Kam Chuan seconded the amendment of Mr. Russell, the amendment of Mr. Russell was passed by 5 to 2..election of sub committee..J A Russell asked to serve in addition to those voted in..

24 May. Application from Messrs. J. A. Russell and A.A. Henggeler of Kuala Lumpur for renewal of Mining lease 2928 Portion 1452 in the Mukim of Rawang. To Secretary to Resident Selangor. Sir, I have the honour to submit an application from Messrs. J. A. Russell and A.A. Henggeler of Kuala Lumpur for a renewal of Mining Lease 2928 Portion 1452 of the Mukim of Rawang as outlined in pink in the attached tracing. Area 204 alr.00p. 2. Mining rights were approved to the applicants in your correspondence No. 4811/15 for a period of two years. Occupation and permission to work prior to the issue of the title was approved and issued on 22.3.16 so that the Lease dating from date of occupation expired on 22.3.18 although it was never issued as the term had expired before it was ready for issue. 3. Messrs. Russell and Henggeler maintained that their rights have not yet expired as the Lease has not yet been issued and that the two years should run not from the date of permission to occupy and work, but from the issue of the Lease. In deference, however, to my view of the case they have now submitted their application for renewal. 4. The inspector of mines is in favour of renewal. 5. Mr. Russell holds 1371 acres with 1029 coolies, Mr. Henggeler 537 acres with 55 coolies, but the deficiency is explained largely by the lack of water on their land. 6. I recommend renewal for a further period of two years. I have the Honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, C?Mowhn?? District Officer, Ulu Selangor. Kuala Kubu Office.

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia Selangor Secretariat. 2100/1918

The Straits Times, 10 April 1918, Page 13 , also published in the Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal 16 March 1918 Vol. V11, No 7, page 410 and The Malay Mail, 4 April, p.8 Selangor Miners. 0. ASSOCIATION'S ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1917. 0. Policy of Conserving Areas. 0. The Committee of the Selangor Miners' Association submit the following annual report for the year 1917:- 0. During the year under review there were 11 meetings - eight being committee meetings and three extraordinary general meetings, including an extraordinary general meeting of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines. Besides the above there were two usual council meetings of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines held here. Our membership stands at 88… 0. The Chamber has sustained a great loss by the death of Dr. Loke Yew, C.M.G., L.L.D. Resolutions of condolence and regret have already been passed and recorded by this association. In the early days when our financial position was in a precarious state, Dr. Loke Yew, then President of the Association, kept it in existence for years with his own financial support. We also deeply regret the death of Towkay Khoo Hock Cheong who was for three successive years a member of the committee. 0. Increased monthly subscriptions…raised to $24 per annum. The subject of building a roasting furnace was discussed at several meetings, and the sub committee… feared that there would not be enough pyritical ore to be had, and that the Straits Trading Co. were again buying this class of ore at more reasonable prices than those offered by The Ampang roasters. The suggestion to build a roasting furnace…. was withdrawn. The question of conversion of mining leases into agricultural titles was brought up…. matter should be… within the Planters Association, the policy of this association being to conserve mining areas rather than deplete them. 0. The land on which the building stands was declared forfeited by the Government and realienated to be used as a site for the Chinese Town Hall, in which the late Dr. Loke Yew had promised to provide accommodation for the Selangor Miners’ Association…. Mr. Cheong Yok Choy….. appointed …in his place. 0. Sailors Day Fund. 0. …all miners.. contribute 2 per cent of proceeds of tin ore sold during month of August towards the Sailors’ Day Fund to provide relief to those sailors who were disabled or killed in action, or to their dependants’… circulars distributed.. handsome sum collected through the Tin Ore Buyers Guild. 0. During year the tin prices ..going up.. to a stage never recorded before. From about $85 per picul ..it rose to.. $140 per picul… brought about prosperity…..meetings…enable all members of all States to meet at different centres, assist to a better understanding. 0. The question of the Warden’s Court..unanimous agreement that the Mining Enactment should be amended to allow miners to appeal against decisions of the Warden… and Judges be assisted by two mining experts as assessors. …Revision of Rules. A sub- committee consisting of Messrs. J. A. Russell, Choo Kia Peng, A.A. Henggeler and Lee Man Pun, was formed to revise the rules of the association. The new rules were passed at a general meeting and are now in force. We are preparing a small booklet on the subject of over milled rice in Chinese for circulation among mining labourers. The Government has kindly undertaken to pay for the cost. We have represented the matter of lampan licences to the Government through the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines… reply from Government not satisfactory… Shortage of labour of …25 per cent…during the year. In spite of the fact that some rubber estates are reducing their labour forces the demand for labour among miners is still as acute as before…affects output… questions of bullock cart loads, or firewood transports, mining timber, thefts of mining tools etc received attention of the committee.
The Selangor Miners Association Minutes of an Extraordinary General Meeting at the Association’s Chamber held on the 2nd May 1918, with Mr Choo Kia Peng in the chair. Reported in F.M.S. Chamber of Mines No. 7 July 1918. (Summary: list of those present Mr. Choo Kia Peng J.P. (President) Mr. A.A. Henggeler (Vice President) and 24 Chinese members. Also present Hon British Resident Mr. E. G. Broadrick, Senior Warden of Mines F.M.S. Mr. W. Eyre- Kenny, Warden of Mines Mr. M.A.V. Allen, Mr. H. N. Ferrers, Mr. David Freeman, Mr. de Stoutz and others. Chairman’s report, members had met on 24th April to consider how to improve tin production. Shortage of labour, resolved to increase hours of mine work, reported to Resident and Senior Warden of Mines co-operation of miners who are not members essential, High Commissioner assured the Association at Ipoh that Government would assist miners. F.M.S. largest tin producers in the world, Chinese largest producers in this country, tin vital for the war, request for Resident to address meeting. Resident: Tin supplies short, request from Imperial Government to increase output, methods need to be adopted by everyone. Increased output will help win the war. China also at war with Germany common cause of allies. Letter from Conservator of Forests, E. Cubitt read. Inland forest reserves opened for fuel. Unable to accede to Ampang but hope to increase Bakau along the coast. Rules there to insure against future want. Discussion on need for extra labour and firewood. Mr. Loke Chow The mine at Ampang unable to get sufficient fuel from Malayan Collieries, order for 500 tons cut to 200. Shortage of trucks on railway. Resolution to ask mines with machinery to work 24 hours a day. Senior Warden of Mines says that Malayan Collieries would have a much larger output but for the war. Output will be bigger in three months. Difficulty of getting labour increased by plague in China. Resolution that miners work an additional shift a day, and be paid at higher rate. Mr Yap Loong Hin referred to land sublet to tributers and suggested that towkays approach their tributers to increase working hours. Resolution on above passed. Mr. J. A. Russell was unable to attend but his letter as follows was read to the meeting. “ Kuala Lumpur, 2nd May 1918. To the President, Selangor Miners’ Association, Kuala Lumpur. Dear Sir, As I informed you this morning, I do not know whether I can get to the Association on time for this afternoon’s meeting, but in case I am unable to do so, I would ask that you kindly to inform the meeting that I personally am strongly in favour of the proposal that we should get all our naichiang and other wage coolies to work three instead of two shifts a day, which even then would only mean a working day of nine hours. I also support the proposal that fun-tsz-ka or co-operative coolies be asked to work longer hours, although I am of the opinion that the profit making basis upon which these coolies work is sufficient inducement for them to work longer hours when they are mining rich land. As this latter class of labourers is in the great majority in Selangor, the State’s output could be greatly increased by opening some of those rich areas which are at present closed to mining. The flats in Selangor have to a great extent been exhausted, but there is probably still as much or more ore in the hills than ever came out of the flats. For some years past, however, the Government has discouraged hill mining and to this, to the amount of land in the Ulu which has been taken up for rubber, and to the refusal of the Government to allow the mining of certain areas of padi land known to be rich in tin, is undoubtedly due to the decrease in our production, which, under existing conditions, must inevitably still further decline. I would, therefore, strongly urge that the Peretak Mukim of Ulu Selangor be once more thrown open to applications for mining land, and that lampan- licences be re-issued to the numbers of already alienated mining blocks in that mukim which at present are not allowed to be worked. I am confident that the energetic mining of Peretak would increase the Selangor tin production by a very considerable percentage. To return to the question of labour, I am against raising wages unless labour increases the amount of its work, as otherwise I believe that higher wages would result in less rather than more tin being won. I would strongly depreciate any increase in shongkee or initial advances, as this would really only be a cloak for crimping and would not benefit the total tin production. Although the cost of tin mining requisites is high, I do no think that, if such requisites are actually obtainable, their high cost is having any marked detrimental effect upon the volume of tin production, for the present price of tin far more than compensates for the increased expenditure needed for material. As a minor point I would suggest that where mining applications are refused some briefly- stated reason be given. During the last few days I have had two mining applications refused, both of which have been under consideration for some considerable period. One was made in 1916. No reason is given as to why these applications are refused. It may be that it has been decided to grant the land to someone else or perhaps to auction it, but on the other hand it may be that my applications have been rejected for some defect that I could very possibly overcome, were I only told what it was. Yours faithfully, Sd. J A Russell.” Mr. H. N. Ferrers hoped that they would see Mr. Russell’s letter in full in the “ Malay Mail”. He agreed with Mr Russell’s letter. Two points he especially agreed with, one the opening of the application book in mukim of Peretak and that lampan licenses be granted in that district to existing blocks, and the other, the failure to give reasons when an application is refused. He moved these in the form of a resolution, carried. Discussion on opening of forest reserves, introduction of common dumping grounds, water supply, machinery, fuel, water power, chairman summary.
The Straits Times 25 June 1918 page 6 An application from J. A. Russell to mine nine acres of land at Sungei Besi was considered at a recent Sanitary Board meeting. It was decided to adhere to the resolution passed on April 1 1914. Mr. Choo Kia Peng, who then disagreed, desired to place on record that he had no objection now.

F.M.S. Chamber of Mines No. 8 August. Report on First Annual Meeting of Eastern Tungsten on August 30. Held at Messrs. J. A. Russell and Co.’s Offices, Kuala Lumpur. Mr. J. McEwan , for the secretaries, Messrs J.A. Russell and Co. read the notice convening the meeting.

The Straits Times, 3 September 1918, Page 3 0. Eastern Tungsten. RESULTS OF THE FIRST YEARS WORKING. Business In China. The first annual general meeting of the shareholders in Eastern Tungsten Co., Ltd was held at Kuala Lumpur, on August 30, Mr. A. A. Henggeler (chairman of directors) presiding. In the course of his speech in moving the adoption of the report and accounts the chairman, according to the Malay Mail, said: In the balance sheet you will observe that only half of our authorized capital has been issued, but that we have an overdraft from bankers of $388,180,27, while our sundry debtors only just balance our sundry creditors. The position may seem a trifle unsound, and as much as it has been the wish of your directors to keep the capital of the company as low as possible, they are seriously contemplating the advisability of issuing the balance of the capital, in order to wipe off the company’s somewhat heavy overdraft. Suspense account presents a paper profit which would only be realized if the funds remitted to HongKong were sent back again. You will observe that although we have a considerable amount of ore in stock and in transit we have liberally drawn against it. An item of $30,000 for good will still appears in the balance sheet and should be written off at an early date. 0. Business In China 0. Our profit from the year under review was $220,392,04. This we can rightly congratulate ourselves upon as a most excellent result for the year’s working, but I am afraid that I cannot claim the greater proportion of it to be due to our legitimate tungsten milling business. From the very commencement of the financial year, the price of tin commenced to rise and steadily did so through the twelve months. Since the end of the financial year the price of tin has been erratic and lately has been steadily falling, and although your directors take every precaution to avoid or minimize losses as much as possible, it is not always able to do so, and, even in the very best case, it is impossible for us to make any side profit on tin when the market for that mineral is not a rising one. The returns for this current year are, therefore, likely, if not certain, to be less than they were for the last. The price for wolfram being fixed, although there is, and always should be, a steady reasonable return upon money sunk in the highly technical business of wolfram milling, such return is not very great. For this reason your directors have recommended $100,000 as being the minimum proportion of last year’s profits which should be placed to a reserve to provide against inevitable losses of a falling tin market. 0. China business entails great risks, for it means entrusting large sums with out much security to our native agents throughout the Interior, territory which is a present more than even usually disturbed, being the scene of a fierce civil war, and this is perhaps an added reason why we should issue the balance and so to wipe off our overdraft. Should we lose large sums in our new enterprise further East, with sufficient sums in hand our Malayan and Siamese business would not thereby be financially endangered. The speaker went to China on the company’s business a short time back, and can assure you that despite the risks inseparable from any new undertaking in that country, every possible precaution is being taken to reduce the same. A scheme is being considered for still further lessening the chance of any China losses possibly involving the Malayan business, and a further visit to China in connection with this idea will shortly be made. 0. Siamese Wolfram Ores. 0. At the request of the board, one of your directors, Mr. J. A. Russell, paid a visit to Bangkok last spring and on behalf of the company completed arrangements with the British Minister there for the purchase and treatment by the company of Siamese wolfram ores for the British Government. The ultimate result of the visit was a complete success, and as a consequence of it a fresh agency is being opened in Lower Siam and new separating works established at Prai. Although an extension of the Siamese business is anticipated, the margin of profit will be small. I wish to thank Mr. Russell for all the work he did in connection with this business. A fact that we have to face when operating in foreign countries like Siam is that, while we are bound by the British Maximum price, foreigners buying for other governments are often able to offer far more for ores than we ourselves can do. Unless, for instance, we are permitted to purchase in Siam upon the same terms as those allowed by the French buyer by his Government, we shall not be able to secure a great proportion of the trade. This is a matter about which we are in constant communication with the home authorities. 0. We are at present only able to compete with other buyers owing to the efficiency of our mills, of our technical staff, and of our trained Oriental travellers who penetrate into very wolfram producing centre throughout lower Siam, the Malay peninsula and Southern China. Our establishment charges are always increasing and we are negotiating to engage three extra chemists. I now beg to move that the report of the directors, together with the statement of the company’s accounts be approved and adopted, which I will ask Mr. Russell to second. 0. The chairman’s motion to adopt the report and accounts being carried, he then moved the payment of the final dividend of 25 per cent, making 35 per cent for the year, the placing to reserve of $100,000 and the carrying forward of the balance of $39,365,04, subject to payment of directors fees, managing directors commission and bonus staff. The resolution was unanimously adopted. The sum of $4,000 was voted to the directors in recognition of their services for the past year. Mr. J. A. Russell was re elected to a seat on the board, and Messrs. Neill and Bell re- elected auditors. 0. Mr. J. A .Russell in thanking the meeting for his re- election, mentioned the great obligation the company was under to its chairman and managing director Mr. Henggeler, for his wise careful and efficient administration; he also moved that a vote of thanks be passed to the company’s staff and that a suitable bonus be granted to its members, which motion was duly seconded and unanimously carried.

The Straits Echo Mail Edition. Thursday 24th April, 1919. Serendah Tin ( From Our Own Correspondent.) Mr. J. A. Russell, presiding at the general meeting of the Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Company, yesterday said that with regard to their future prospects one hydraulic elevator had had to be closed down for lack of payable ground; the two that remained did not appear to have more than four to six months work ahead of them. Applications had been made to Government for the right to bore and if found payable to take up a large area south-west of the property now being used as a tailing dump. Their investments totalled $1.20 a share. The pipe line and monitors were valued at $20,000. A dividend of 10 per cent was declared. Mr. Russell was re-elected director. NB The coverage of this meeting in the The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 1 May 1919, Page 5 and The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser 25 April 1919,and The Straits Times, 24 April 1919, Page 7 refers to Mr. Russell not Mr. J. A. Russell.
Malay Mail. December 2, 1918, p.7 and The Straits Echo Mail Edition, 11th December 1918, p.1,894 and The Malay Tin and Rubber Journal Vol. V11, No. 23, 17th December 1918 p.1,420 Tin prices. The Selangor Miners. Support for Chamber. An emergency meeting of the Selangor Miners Association was held at the Association’s Building on Saturday November 30th at 3pm with Mr. Choo Kia Peng in the chair. (Summary: price of tin dropping to $120 per pikul, miners struggling to pay wages, food and materials, may have to shut mines, most miners have no large cash reserves, united action due to serious situation, three questions from miners, how has tin control fixed price without enquiry into costs of mining, unfavourable effect on industry, miners will be ruined after extending their operations after Government’s requests. During war price fixed by allies, but appeal made against fixing price without consultation with miners. Enquiries into difference between prices paid to miners and price at which tin is sold at Home. Local government has no say so Imperial Government must be approached. Mr. Loke Chow Thye opened up mines in response to Government and has had to close one due to fall in price. Felt Government had duped them and left in the lurch after war is over to fight their own battles. Resolution to ask Government to have minimum price of $150. Other miners describe losing their investments and mines run at a loss. Miners really frightened by present prices. Recent influenza epidemic, constant heavy rains, high prices of mining requisites and rapid decrease in price of tin. Chairman informed meeting they were invited to British resident’s office that afternoon, money subscribed to Red Cross Fund, vote of thanks to chair.)
The Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal, No. 12, Vol. VIII, 30th June 1919, p. 808. Mining Section. Mining in the F.M.S. Reasons for Reduction in Output. Optimism Regarding the Future. In the course of his annual report for 1918 the Chief Secretary, F.M.S., states: - (Summary: revenue, exports, appeals made to increase production for war resulted in lower production, high prices cause decrease in output, miners can earn more with less work, mine owners can profit from low grade areas. Termination of war means excess stocks, tin market closed, Government purchased output, America prohibited buying from East. Prices rose then fell. Imperial Government stopped buying in December. Local Government now buying. No alarm about reduced output, cause of allies has not suffered, tin mining will prosper with more modern methods. Closing of some mines, labour force should find employment elsewhere, deaths 143. Commission about industry investigated: reduction in output, exhaustion of fields, difficulty in obtaining machinery, shortage of labour, U.K. regulations affecting new capital, financial conditions, no capital withheld due to law of renewal of leases, methods of mining, silting of water courses, government closure of certain areas and legislation, demands for geological surveys. Commission exonerated Government and Mines Department from charges of harsh mining laws that drove capital from country. Recommendations that auctions should not be used for leases. Charges of favoritism over allotment of leases. Premiums ensure that land will be worked, rather than re sold. City sources say capital is available for mining in country, and not been driven away by harsh administration of mining laws.)
The Malay Mail, Tuesday, November 18, 1919 page 10. Eastern Tungsten. Compensation Question. Chairman on Prospects. The second annual general meeting of the shareholders in Eastern Tungsten Co. Ltd. was held at the registered offices of the Company, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Buildings, Kuala Lumpur, at 11 am on Nov.15th, 1919. The Hon. Mr. H. P. Clodd (Chairman of Directors) presided. The Secretaries, Messrs. J. A. Russell and Co., having read the notice convening the Meeting and the minutes of the first annual general meeting, which were confirmed, submitted the annual statement of accounts and balance sheet together with the reports of the directors and auditors. The Chairman in moving their adoption said: - Gentlemen: - I take it you have given the report and accounts, which have been in your hands for 14 days, a careful perusal and on that assumption I will take them as read and make a few comments which may enlighten you as to the present position and the prospects of the company, and also the usual comments on the balance sheet. Taking the debit side first, the three items Bank Overdraft, $129,715.06 which represents the overdraft in Hong Kong against stocks and the Company’s property less the credit balance in Kuala Lumpur. Bills discounted against ore in transit $680,781.62. Bills discounted against ore on consignment $22,350.36, totalling $832,847.04 which must be placed against the value of the ore in stock and transit on the credit side $895,895.43, leaving a credit of $63.048.39, which we hope may be realised when we sell our stocks in Hong Kong and America. I might mention that your Board have carefully considered the question of the value of the stocks and have written them down from their cost price to G$10 per unit and this amount we hope it may be possible to realise. The present selling price of wolfram in America is G$7.50 per unit but this should improve, as stocks in America become less. The U.S. Senate has now a Bill before it, to impose an import duty of a like amount on foreign ores, but whether this will become law remains to be seen; at any rate it is not advisable to build our hopes too high on that. Our Liverpool brokers inform us that in their opinion there is a doubt whether a duty will be imposed. One cannot say more on this point until more definite information is available from official sources. Sundry creditors $21,938.23 represents various items, such as salaries, wages, stores purchased in June etc., and all have since been paid. You will note your Directors have written off $63,800.40 from the Reserve created last year. It is to be regretted that this loss was sustained, but it was occasioned largely by the defalcations of one of our upcountry buying agents in China. I might remind you that your Chairman, last year Mr. A.A. Henggeler, in his speech mentioned that great risks are entailed in dealing in China direct with producers. Although the total amount of defalcations, $43.060.40 has been written off, our Hong Kong Agents have attached property belonging to the defaulter valued at $4,000 (H.K.) or $8,080 (Straits) and they hope shortly to obtain a decree in the Chinese Courts for the sale of this property. The balance of the amount written off, $20,140, represents $2,860.00 Kuala Lumpur Investment Account and $17,880 Hong Kong Investment account. The latter sum was the amount invested in a Company called China Minerals, Ltd., floated in Hong Kong, the object being to prospect in Southern China, and, if successful, develop any ore deposits found. It is unfortunate no workable deposits were discovered. China Minerals having ceased to prospect, your Directors have considered it advisable to write this sum off. Turning to the credit side, Plant and Machinery stand at $101,335.19 or an increase of $5,496.68 over the amount last year, the increase is due to plant erected at Prai. We have written off $13,415.09 as depreciation from this account. As with Plant and Machinery, Land Buildings and Furniture account have increased from $76.849.56 to $124,644.51, after allowing for depreciation, an increase in of $47,794.95, which represents the costs of the Prai Godown and Works. I have already dealt with the ore in stock and in transit. Stores and Materials amounting to $30,347.22, are equally divided between Kuala Lumpur and Hongkong and represent our stocks of bags; these have not been written down, as their original purchase price (the figure at which they stand) is less than the present day market price. Sundry Debtors $40,946.62 is mainly balances due in shipments made to Messrs. H. A. Watson and Co. Liverpool, and since June 30th have been paid. Advances to Agents $7,063.98 are, F.M.S. $6,426.84, Hong Kong $637.14. The latter sum has been recovered and the former although outstanding is considered good by your Directors and they have not therefore written this amount off. I will now turn to the Profit and Loss account, the net earnings for the year, after paying all running expenses amounted to $71,652.81 to which must be added $33 transfer fees, making a total of $71,685.81. This amount is misleading, for as I mentioned before, when the Armistice was signed in November last year, the American wolfram market closed and all your ore became unsaleable. The F.M.S. portion of your business continued to make their usual profits up till April 30th, when the London market closed. You thus had 7 months of last year unproductive of revenue in Hong Kong, and two months in the F.M.S., whereas your general charges were maintained. With the uncertainty as to when the wolfram market would re-open and the difficulty of obtaining skilled labour for your mills, your Directors decided not to dismiss any experienced hands, as such action would have been false economy. We have, however, wherever possible, cut down on all unnecessary expenditure. The main point you will now wish to hear about are the prospects of your Company again being able to commence operations; this you must realise is entirely dependent on the wolfram market. On November 11th, the day the Armistice was signed, there were enormous stocks of unsold ore both in the United Kingdom and the U.S.A., and with the cessation of hostilities and therefore a demand, the American market dropped from $21 (Gold) per unit to $6.50 (Gold) per unit and there were forced sales in America at the latter price, which gave manufacturers sufficient supplies to carry on. As to the United Kingdom market, affairs are decidedly better. The Government stocks have been sold to the manufacturers at 30s per unit and stocks have so diminished and the demand been so steady, that the Government selling price has now been increased to 32s 6d. I might say that a market has also opened for ores other than Government stocks, and your Directors have made a sale at a good profit and are hoping to negotiate further sales. This is the thin end of the wedge and clearly indicates a revival of the market. This business was started at the time of the recent big industrial strike, and it is apparent that, if one is able to sell wolfram at a time when all the manufacturers at Home were in the middle of upheaval, it augurs well for the possibility of selling when matters are again normal. The enormous amount of reconstruction work on the Continent will naturally demand a good supply of wolfram and for this reason we look forward to a resumption of activity in the Company’s business in future. The Imperial Government has announced that compensation will be paid to producers of tungsten ores for loss sustained due to the action of Government in ceasing purchases, and to any loss incurred through the installation of machinery, etc., in order to comply with the urgent request made by Government to increase the production of tungsten ores during wartime. Mr. Henggeler and Mr. Russell are using their best efforts to induce Home Government to recognizes that this Company is entitled to compensation, for we are in effect producers, inasmuch as the mixed ore obtained is entirely useless to the manufacturers until it has passed through our separators. It is understood that compensation has been paid to Burmah shippers and it seems indisputable that we have every right to compensation. The British Government would have been deprived of a very large quantity of an indispensable material during the war had it not been for this Company. As I have said, the matter is being pressed strongly at Home and I hope the justice of our claim will be admitted. Messrs. A.A. Henggeler and D.F. Topham were re-elected to their seats on the Board and Messrs. Neill and Bell were re-elected auditors. The directors were voted $4,000 as remuneration for their services and the meeting terminated with a vote of thanks to the Chairman.
The Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal. 6 March 1920 No. 3 Vol. IX Mining Section Selangor Miners’ Association Annual report for 1919 The committee of the Selangor Miner’s association report as follows for the year ended December 31 last. - (Summary: accounts.. meetings..seven held.. market affected by end of war..Government took over purchase of tin.. ceased to buy in April, price then slowly rose.. several landowners reduced their rents.. high price of food especially rice.. on July 1 Government took over all stocks of rice from importers and dealers, miners grateful to Government.. Government appointed Director of Food production to encourage planting of rice and foodstuffs..new regulations for mines to plant up one acre per 10 coolies.. most miners planting sweet potatoes.. firewood expensive.. suggested use of more modern plants.. Tung Shin Hospital Appeal. Weighing fee introduced to support Tung Shin and Tai Wah hospitals.. Tai Wah gives care to mining coolies free.. Tin commission report ..response to three issues “that the system of reckoning one coolie per acre as laid down by Mr H C Belfield many years ago, should continue.. protest against part of the report that says coolies work with less exertion when price is high.. that compulsory purchase of land to give to neighbouring owner is not suitable for Selangor. Labour scarce, high wages.. Chinese miners not in favour of compulsory assessment on coolies.. membership remains at 92)
The Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal. 18 March 1920 No. 4 Vol. IX Mining Section Selangor Miners. Continued Decline in Output Deplored Government’s Help Appreciated. Speaking at the annual meeting of the Selangor Miner’s association, the president, Mr. Choo Kia Peng said:- ( Summary: report and accounts.. year 1919 under review.. good due to high price of tin.. question of decline in output..Government does not always do all it can to increase output.. during war Government passed act to allow tin mining on agricultural areas with consent of British Resident.. after war , no market for tin.. Government bought it.. permission to mine on agricultural land withdrawn in Selangor but not in other States. Fuel problems, transport needed, railway has insufficient rolling stock to meet requirements of miners.. mines risk flooding due to lack of fuel for pumping plant.. members should send in particulars to Senior Warden of Mines with specific cases of threatened flooding.. Complaint that Railway is taking all firewood at Port Swettenham.. small miners suffering.. Railway should not be in competition with miners.. firewood available which railway cannot transport. Coal also unavailable because of transport difficulties. Electrification of mines discussed waiting for report of Government Expert Advisor.. Food production.. should all carry out the instructions of the Director of Food production.. Trustees of Estate of Loke Yew to pay $50,000 for constructing a Chinese Town hall with accommodation for Association in new building, miners should subscribe addition al funds “ that the new building may be one worthy of our community’s prominent position in the mining and business circles of the peninsula” List of F.M.S. Tin Export Official Returns for January 1920 compared with previous year.)
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser , 8 July 1920, Page 22 KEDAH AND PERLIS REPORT. GAMING ABOLISHED. The annual report by Mr. M. S. H. McArthur, British Adviser, on the State of Kedah for the twelve months, 7th October 1918 to September 25, 1919 states that the revenue amounted to $4,941,484, a decrease of $117,524 from that the previous year, but $741,854 over the estimate. The decrease on the previous year was mainly due to the abolition of gambling farms…………The Warden of Mines Mr. F. C. Marshall reported that the only workings of any size or importance to the State, those belonging to Mr. J. A. Russell at Sintok in North Kedah, were closed down during the year, this causing a blow to the prosperity of the district in which they are situated…….. The output of tin-ore dropped to 1,896 pikuls during the year. The streams which in previous years produced well, appear to be exhausted…..
0. The Straits Times, 10 November 1920, Page 10 . Eastern Tungsten. . Prospects for Future of The Company. The third annual general meeting of shareholders in Eastern Tungsten, Ltd., was held at the registered offices of the Company, Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building's, Kuala Lumpur, on November 5, Mr. A. A. Henggeler presiding. Mr. W. S. Coutts for the Secretaries, Messrs. J. A. Russell and Co., read the notice convening the meeting and the auditors’ report. The annual statement of accounts and balance sheet and the report of the directors and auditors were submitted to the meeting. 0. Summary: Chairman commented on report. Summarized financial situation, and price of stocks in KL Hong Kong and New York. Prices in New York may go up if a Republican president is elected. He listed 0. values of plant, land, buildings, stores, materials. Losses due to, compensation from Ministry of Munitions, losses due to sale of stocks…. 0. “ The consumption of Tungsten ore in the first half of 1920 was every bit as large as the consumption during the war, which is proved by the fact that the large surplus stocks left on the British Government’s hands at the time of the armistice have been completely absorbed. Once trade is normal again the demand will no doubt shew an increase, as tungsten steel is now almost universally in use for tools and also for the manufacture of motor cars parts and other machinery. 0. Turned Down! 0. As you were informed at the last general meeting, before the official termination of the war, the Imperial Government requested producers to stop shipments under their contracts which were technically in force for six months after a date to be fixed by the Imperial Government announcing the termination of the war. They pointed out that the increase of stocks would affect the market at a later date and promised at the same time to pay compensation at the rate of 30 per cent per unit on any ore that would have been produced and in this event allowing for probable increased production due to development work etc. On the strength of this promise, we, amongst others, stopped shipments assuming that we would receive fair treatment for having assisted the Government during the war in every way to increase the supply of Tungsten ores which were absolutely essential to them. Australian shippers on the other hand refused to comply with the Government’s request and continued both shipments and to receive payment in full. Mr. Russell and myself had several interviews with members of the Ministry of Munitions who however argued that no compensation was due to us as we were not actual producers. We pointed out to them that had it not been for the pioneering work of the Eastern Tungsten Company practically no Tungsten ores would have been produced in the F.M.S. which they admitted; at the same time, they, however, argued that, as we were not actually mining, we did not come under the compensation scheme. 0. We consulted Messrs. Budd, Johnson, Jecks and Colclough, a prominent firm of lawyers in the City, and they were of the opinion that, not having an actual written agreement, we would have a very uphill task to establish any but a normal claim and that in any case the proceedings would cost a great deal of money. They said that we should have refused to stop shipping like the Australians who did not rely on vague Government promises. We came therefore to the decision not to go to Court and on my return to London in February I again called on the Ministry and after a frightful struggle eventually got the Ministry to make us an ex gratia payment of £5,000,- which is about one fifth of the amount we claim we ought to have received from Government. 0. Smashing the market 0. A matter which affected us even more than this repudiation of the Ministry’s promise of compensation is the fact that they deliberately smashed the market in tungsten ores by selling their large stocks, which had cost them a minimum of 65 shillings, at 30 shillings and less. This naturally created also as slump in American and our stocks, these became almost unsaleable, while buyers of ore refused to take delivery and a number of American firms went into liquidation. We carefully considered with American lawyers the advisability of taking proceedings against these defaulting buyers but eventually decided that it was no good throwing good money after bad. As already mentioned, the British Government stocks, which they announced would be sufficient for two years thus further depressing the market, were absorbed in six months, but, nevertheless, with the general slump in trade Tungsten has been affected like all other commodities and prices have not yet recovered. 0. I feel, however, confident that better times are ahead of us as there is no doubt that Tungsten steel will in future be used to a very great extent. The production of mixed ores has, due to the fall in price, so largely decreased that your directors decided not to open the Prai Mills. The separating machinery is being transferred to Padu, while the rest of the plant as well as buildings will be sold.”…move report be approved….” The sum of $2,000 was voted to the directors in remuneration of their services for the past year. 0. Mr. J. A. Russell and the Hon. Mr. H. P. Clodd were re-elected to seats on the board.... auditors…A vote of thanks was passed to Messrs A. A. Hengeller and J. A. Russell for their services on the company’s behalf while in Europe…. Vote of thanks to chairman and directors.

Letter from the District Officer, Kinta, to Secretary to the Resident, Perak, Taiping. $ February, 1921. 8 in K.L.O. 1006-20 Kinta District Office, Batu Gajah, 4 February, 1921. SUBJECT. Application from Mr. J. A. Russell of Kuala Lumpur for a Prospecting Licence over 450 acres of land at Kampar. Sir, I have the honour to report that Mr. J. A. Russell of Kuala Lumpur has applied for a Prospecting Licence over 450 acres of land bordering the Kampar river at Chulet in the Mukim of Kampar. 2. The land is shown outlined in red on tracing enclosed. It is available state land and is not required for any other purposes. 3. The Warden of Mines has no objection to the issue of the Prospecting Licence provided the Kampar river is excluded from the area applied for. 4. Mr. Russell owns 25 acres with no coolies. 5 I recommend the grant of a prospecting Licence subject to the exclusion of the Kampar River on the terms following: - (a) Fee- $25/- (b) Period – six months (c) Right to select the whole area or blocks of not less than 100 acres each on the usual terms. (d) Prospecting results to be furnished to the Warden of Mines. (e) Deposit of $300/- against pitting. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, so/- Meadows Frost, District Officer. Kinta. The Secretary to the Resident, Perak, Taiping. (Map of Mukim of Kampar attached)

Document in the National Archives of Malaysia. Kinta Land Office. 1006/1920 Transcribed by C.G.

Malay Mail 3 March 1921 and SELANGOR MINERS MEET. [Articles] The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 5 March 1921, Page 14
 and SELANGOR MINERS MEET. [Articles] The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 10 March 1921, Page 151
 Selangor Miners Emergency Meeting Decision to Economise An emergency meeting of the Selangor Miners Association was held yesterday afternoon in the association’s rooms, Petaling Street. The meeting was well attended by those Chinese interested in the tin industry. Mr. Choo Kia Peng, who presided, opened the proceedings by reviewing the present critical situation and the causes that have led to it. (Summary: decision to reduce wages, reduce fire wood used, approach Malayan Collieries asking for price of coal to be reduced, ask landlords for reduced rates, ask Government to reduce price of rice, and export duty on tin till end of crisis. Sub committees formed. AGM to be held on 18th.)
Malay Mail 18 March 1921 Selangor Miners: The Annual Meeting Increased Working Costs. The annual meeting of the Selangor Miners’ association was held in the Association’s building, Birch Road, Kuala Lumpur, at noon today. Mr. Choo Kia Peng, (President) took the chair. The Chairman in his address to the meeting said: (Summary: price of tin causing anxiety, F.M.S. Chamber of Mines wrote to London Chamber of Mines to enlist support from Cornwall and Nigarian Chamber of Mines to approach Government jointly about fixing price. One group did not agree, did not want to upset laws of supply and demand. We consider our product differs because speculators manipulate it. Article in Straits Echo by Mr. Thomas with scheme to safeguard industry, miners recommended to read it. Local Government has helped. Government has suspended buying. Very bad time. As long as there is an open market arguments will be made to do away with Government interference. Change of Government policy may be a blessing; a free market means fresh money coming into country. Cost of production, no accurate statistics for Chinese mines. Increased cost of working. Chinese mines not making profits. Some think that most expensive Chinese mines should go to the wall. Assumption that Chinese mines are too expensively run is misrepresentation of facts. Problem with having no proper figures. Some fictitious figures. Chinese mines have not kept proper statistics. Working costs per yard should be kept. Speculators on tin exchange live on statistics. Table of comparative statement of principle items of expenditure 1913-14 and 1920 for wages, fuel, coal, engines, oil, trucks, rice, planks attap, firewood. Can’t arrive at exact figures. Difficulties in Peretak over leases. Affects of 6 years of war. Try to bring costs of tin production down. Will be recovery in tin as there is no serious increased production.)
Malay Mail Saturday 19 March 1921 Selangor Miners. Yesterdays Meeting. New Office Bearers. (Summary: Chairman asked for questions. Association to collect more comprehensive statistics in future, all miners to keep detailed reports on working costs, to send to London Chamber of Mines, to do away with talk of making huge profits. Chairman resigned as President. “ They wanted now somebody who knew the industry quite well to help them carry on and he was glad to inform them that Mr. J. A. Russell had consented to stand for nomination. (Hear Hear). Of course Mr. Russell was a very busy man and he had consented on the condition that he (the Chairman) should assist him. His resignation from the chairman ship did not mean that he was going to do nothing. If they wanted him he would serve on the committee.” Need to elect active members in difficult crisis; he suggested Messrs. Proust and Robbins. Mr. Proust a practical miner. Election of office bearers. Messrs. J. A. Russell, President, Choo Kia Peng. J.P., Vice President, and Committee of Chew Cam Chuan, Hoh Man Koh, Yew Kee, Lee Man Pun, Low Leong Gan, Ng Peng Sen, Rene Proust, H.H. Robbins, Yap Loong Him J.P. Election of three representatives to send to F.M.S. Chamber of Mines. Nominate J. A. Russell, Choo Kia Peng and Lee Man Pun. Mar 31st meeting decisions, committees formed, wages reduced, appeal to reduce rents, appeal to Government to reduce taxes and cost of rice. Government response on 12th unsatisfactory. Reduction in rice costs promised on 10 April, and now said to be May. Large proportion of workforce’s pay goes on rice. Question to be brought forward again at Chamber of Mines meeting. Appeal to railways not to increase freights unsatisfactory. Will make further appeals. “ Finally we appealed to Malayan Collieries to reduce their coal prices and received an answer on Mar 15 offering us a rebate of 15 per cent which is generous of them and they are helping us very much whilst other commodity vendors are doing nothing. We have already written them a letter of thanks” London Chamber of Mines asked them by telegram to do all these things. Meeting closed.)
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 23 March 1921, Page 6 and Untitled [Articles] The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 24 March 1921, Page 188 Mr. J. Russell has been elected President of the Selangor Miners' Association. The Malayan Collieries Co. is allowing miners a rebate of 15 per cent during the tin slump.
The Straits Times, 20 January 1922, Page 9 Chinese Miners Views on his policy. FOOC KL January 19. The Hon. Mr. W. F. Nutt, O.B.E. received a hearty reception at the hands of the Selangor Chinese this evening, when he was entertained at a sumptuous Chinese Tea at the Chamber of Selangor Miners. There was a big gathering, including the Hon. Mr. W. George Maxwell, C.M.G., Chief Secretary, the Hon. Mr. F.O. Stonor, British Resident of Perak, the Hon Mr. R. C. M. Kindersley, Messrs. Argyll Robertson, J. A. Russell, A. Grant Mackie, W.T. Chapman, Richards, D. Freeman, A.S Bailey, Eyre Kenny, F.M Price, Wee Hap Lan, Yap Tai Chee, S.A. Yell, San Ah Win, Khoo Keng Hooy, Dr. E.A.O. Travers, D. Graham, Harris. The Hon. Mr. Choo Kia Peng presided and made a splendid speech in the course of which he read out two telegrams from Perak. The first one from the Chairman of the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines stated:- “ On behalf of the Chamber of Mines please thank Mr. Nutt for the great help rendered to the industry. The best wishes of the Chamber go with him” The telegram from Mr. Mair stated:- Most anxious to associate myself with your remarks Nutt today.” Mr. Kia Peng continued:- Gentlemen our guest, the Hon Mr. Nutt, requires no introduction. The function to-day is the only means of expressing the true feeling of the Chinese community towards a friend who has worked ungrudgingly for our welfare and for that of the general community for over twenty years. Though he has been away from Selangor for the last few years, we have not forgotten him, and I am sure that that feeling has been reciprocated by him. Up to yesterday evening I have no thought of saying anything with reference to Mr. Nutt's relation with his company. When I saw the paper I realized at once there has been a terrible misunderstanding to which our friend is the victim. Of two things I am positively convinced and they are, firstly, that the action which Mr. Nutt so courageously took was in the best interests of this country as a whole, and therefore ultimately and of necessity, in those of the Straits Trading Company itself and, secondly, that Mr. Nutt was not actuated by any spirit of reckless speculation or any desire, by deviating from the traditional policy of his predecessors, to make illegitimate gambling gains for his shareholders. No one who knows Mr. Nutt and the high minded and disinterested course of action for which he has always stood, can for a moment doubt this fact. (Applause.) Mr. Nutt has our deepest respect and sympathy for being the victim of what is I think, a shortsighted and I trust only a temporary deviation from the Straits Trading Company’s traditional policy of preserving the local tin mining industry even if it means some little and momentary curtailing of its own consistent earning of phenomenally high profits. (hear, hear). Public Spirit. During the war measures were passed by the score, he was always active in safeguarding the interests of the various communities, whilst on council the amendments of the banishment Enactment and various others affecting more particularly the welfare of the Chinese community have been chiefly due to his indefatigable energy. He held a unique public position in Malaya as being the only official member who has sat on two councils- The Federal and the S.S. legislative Councils. (Applause) So much for our friend Mr. Nutt in his public capacity. Now I must speak of his social side. I know that my friend does not claim anything special in this connection but with very great aid of his better half he has for many years been a power for good in our social life. Gentleman, there is another side of the question why we appreciate the good works of a man like Mr. Nutt. It is because public spirit in this country is not too common. I have not the slightest doubt that in the hearts of most people in this country there is a genuine feeling to do good for our fellow countryman and for the country from which we derive our protection, freedom and prosperity. That that public spirit as a rule has not been conspicuously displayed is partly due to the modest character of all communities and partly due to the diverse nationalities we have in our midst. So that when the public curtain rises we find on the stage a few players striving with all their might to please the audience. Every wrong step or every false note is detected. They have to stand the racket. It may be applauses or hisses. You will I think realize how difficult is their position sometimes. But there is one compensating factor in our works. We are often assisted in our works by the responsible officers of the Government. Take our case, we are fortunate in having a very firm, impartial, and sympathetic man in the person of Mr. Maxwell, our Chief Secretary, whose knowledge and experience of Malaya stand second to none (applause). The Asiatic communities are always assured of sympathetic treatment by him. I have seldom failed to enlist his assistance for any Chinese cause if I can manage to put a fair proposition before him. When I appealed for out Chinese Maternity Association he said take me to see it. After the visit the Government gave us an increased annual contribution and told us to proceed with the extension of the building by again helping us to a dollar per dollar contribution. When I wrote an appeal to him on behalf of the Asiatic Unemployment on a Saturday, he at once sent for out committee to meet him on the following Monday and gave us a handsome donation. These are only a few examples. Gentleman, if there is anything more that I desire to take this opportunity to impress upon the mind of this gathering it is this. We are all in this country on a similar mission, to make an honest living and to build ourselves up. To do successfully it is essential we must have peace. Each community cannot adopt an indifferent towards the other, because the general interest will suffer. Neither the Government nor the governed can afford to go on in separate paths towards different directions, for we can never meet at a common point. Therefore let us Chinese, other Asiatics, Europeans and Government work together and help one another by showing one another the shortest route to reach the common ground upon which all our future salvation depends. For Mr. Nutt our earnest wish and hope is that, after short rest in England, Malaya may attract him back to carry on the splendid work to which he has devoted himself for the last quarter of a century. (applause) 0. Mr. Nutt’s Reply 0. Mr. Nutt, who was greeted with applause, said in reply:- Mr. Choo Kia Peng, members of the Selangor Miners association and Chamber of Commerce and gentlemen: I thank you first Mr. Kia Peng for your very kind and sympathetic expressions which at the present time I greatly appreciate. I thank the Chinese gentleman of the Selangor Miners Association and Chamber of Commerce for giving me the opportunity of meeting you here this afternoon to bid you goodbye. It is with feelings of sadness and regret that I take leave of Maya and when Mr. Kia Peng intimated to me that you Chinese gentlemen wished to take leave of me in this manner I was very grateful to him for the opportunity of meeting you and saying a few words on the very trying time all those connected with the mining industry have been through during 1919/1920. The history of this commenced with the first crisis of 1914 when the miners were deprived of a market for their produce. This was of short duration. The Government for the first time in the history of this of this country came forward and became buyers of tin. I well remember the incident as I was asked by the unofficial community to go to Singapore to interview Mr. Wilkinson the Acting Governor and Mr. Cook the head of the Straits Trading Company ltd. To see what could be done to mainstay the mining industry. In March 1918 I was appointed Managing Director of the Straits Trading Company Ltd. I had not had this position more than a few months when the tin market became disorganized by the intervention of the Home Government control and Messrs. Boustead and Co Singapore on July 12 1918 were appointed the sole Agents for tin in the straits which appointment ceased on December 12 of that ear. Tin was therefore controlled during this period and this control has, in the opinion of many, been responsible for what occurred afterwards. 0. Resume Of Tin Position 0. Hostilities, as you are aware, ceased on November 11, 1918. Towards the end of December 1918 tin prices fell very rapidly from the control prices and there was no demand and I came to Kuala Lumpur and saw Sir Edward Brockman and put certain proposals before him by which the straits trading Co Ltd would finance miners on the basis of $90 per picul which would naturally have been limited by the finance available. I also met in this hall members of your association and conveyed to them my proposals but these were not acceptable for reasons known to you all. I then saw the Chief Secretary again and urged that the Government should again come to the assistance of the industry and they agreed to buy tin ex FMS ores to carry the position over the Chinese New Year. Buying commenced for the Government account on January 5, 1919 at $118 and ceased on April 26 of that year at $100 per picul, the two smelting companies being appointed as Government Agents. The result was that large unsold stocks of tin were accumulated by the FMS Government and also by the straits trading Co. In March 1919 at my suggestion with the authority of Sir Arthur Young who was then Governor of the Straits Settlements and High Commissioner of the FMS I went to Batavia to confer with the Netherlands Indies Government to the scheme being to hold off combined stocks for a minimum price of $119. The scheme though not entirely acceptable was the means of reciprocal feeling between the two Governments on the question of tin stocks. The Netherlands Indies Government did not sell so that nominally the position of the Eastern tin holders was sound and of mutual benefit to both Governments and the smelting interests. In July 1919 the market re opened and by the middle of August 1919 the whole accumulation of Straits tin had been disposed of to buyers at Singapore with satisfactory financial results to both the FMS Government and the Straits Trading co. From August 1919 to February 1920 the tin market reflected high prices, demand was good and the highest price ever recorded for tin in the history of the world were reached, £422 in London and $212.75 at Singapore. Speculation seemed to be rife and in March very violent fluctuations in the tin price took place, the movement being downwards. Big drops in the Sterling price took place and the position seemed to be out of control. From January to March 1920 the dollar bids for tin in Singapore were at high premium over the London parity and there seemed to be no stability in the position. Big falls in the sterling price brought out large sales from the FMS producers and ore held against advances was unloaded and demand showed signs of falling off. The market would not absorb the supplies coming forward, but the Straits Trading Co continued in accordance with its policy ever since its inception, buying ore daily, with the result that it soon found itself accumulating tin, for which there was little or no demand. This condition maintained for a considerable time and the position was fraught with anxiety. During that time I kept the Government fully informed of the situation and the miners sent a deputation to the Government urging upon them to take action similar to what they did following the Armistice and on December 6, 1920 the FMS Government became buyers of tin as before from the FMS ores at $110 per picul. The price was subsequently increased to $115 then reduced to $100 at which price Government buying ceased on February 8, 1921 0. The Bandoeng Agreement 0. On February 20, 1921 I saw the Hon. Mr. A B Voules, the Acting chief Secretary of the FMS and suggested that I should go to Batavia to endeavor to come to some agreement with the Netherland Indies Government in the matter of accumulation of stocks and I also had interviews with His Excellency at Government House, Singapore and with his written authority I sailed with Mr. George Penny for Batavia on February 25, 1921 and on February 28, 1921 at Bandoeng a conference was held at which the now well known Bandoeng Agreement was arrived at in the matter of accumulated stocks of Straits, Banka and Billiton tin. 0. (Ed.: following text faded and hard to decipher) This, gentlemen, is briefly a rough resume of the unprecedented position in which the tin industry finds itself after the world war, and only those who have been associated with the management of a large organization like the Straits Trading Co. from March 1918 to the to the present time can appreciate the stupendous problems, difficulties and anxieties that I have faced during that period. It is true that the economic conditions of the period following the Armistice are different from those which pertain now and it is problematical and a debatable point whether the present position would have arisen had the practical system of control exercised by the British Government on the tin industry during the war not been in operation. Government control put a ban on statistical information which created a false position, as was instanced by America having 10,000 tons tin bought under the control which was subsequently sold to consumers at the control price of 72 cents (gold) per lb. while buyers were not permitted to buy tin from producing countries at a much lower figure. Tin metal and tin ore imports were embargoed, as we know. 0. The work that the Straits Trading Co. Ltd. did though its management on behalf of the F.M.S. mining industry both here and in England during this anxious period can never be fully appreciated, in fact in certain directions it is misunderstood. I have always felt that the prosperity of the Straits Trading Co. was intimately bound up with the prosperity of the mining industry and in continuance of that policy which has characterized the operations of the Straits Trading Co. since its incorporation the Company finds itself to-day the holders of a quantity of tin that the market could not absorb. 0. Object of Mr. Nutt’s Policy 0. During the past few days the Straits Settlements and F.M.S. has been placarded with the results of my policy and from this you have no doubt read the criticism which is heaped upon my head. It was not my intention to refer to this in my speech today as the matter is one largely between myself and the shareholders of the Straits Trading Co. but as such publicity has been given to the issue from the side of those who are now in authority I think it only reasonable that I should endeavor to clear away any misunderstanding. It is for that reason that I have led up so fully to the culminating point of my resignation. I took up a definite policy from the beginning of the tin crisis and have stuck to it, whether my policy is right is a matter of opinion. Mr. Kia Peng has broken away from his promise to me quite rightly I think in defence of one who has done his best for the industry. To state that I went in for a rash speculation is unjust and incorrect. My whole aim and object in my policy has been to protect the mining industry during the most critical time in its history, to assist the F.M.S. Government and to keep up the Good name of the Straits Trading Co. with whom I have worked for nearly 27 years. My policy may give the appearance of speculation i.e. to buy more ore than you can sell tin or not to sell tin on every occasion when the market was willing to offer a price for it. If I had met the merchant speculator or the market operator on every occasion when he bid for tin I fear we should have seen the price of tin down to $50 and the industry on its knees. I am quite satisfied that the policy I adopted was the right one and I am also satisfied that it will in time be acknowledged to be so, and though I have suffered the greatest ignominy during the last three months and particularly at the meeting of the Straits Trading Co. on 16th instant the result will ultimately prove that I was justified. No one has yet put before me a clear exposition of what would have been the result if I had not adopted the policy I did. I have a very clear idea of what would ?be conveyed and no doubt anyone who cares to think also has. The public may say why did I not reply to the criticisms at the meeting on 16th. I can only reply that I had stated my case to those who were adjudicating on my policy and as agreement became impossible we agreed to differ and I was satisfied to allow time to prove my policy, but owing to the publicity given to the whole question as in ?my knowledge this is the first occasion that the proceedings of the Straits Trading Co. General Meeting have appeared in the Press. I decided to break away from my original intention and I thank you Gentlemen for giving me this opportunity. 0. It is a serious position for me to be in after a career of 27 years in Malaya to be leaving it shall I say under a cloud when my own friends and acquaintances are weighing up in their minds as to whether I did right or wrong. I can only assure you I did the best my conscience told me and what I have given of my best to the Company I have served and the country that has sheltered me. I am sorry to have clouded the proceedings by this my dissertation. I should like before I conclude to say how pleased I was that the F.M.S. Government has recognized the genuine qualities of your chairman the Hon. Mr. Choo Kia Peng in making him a member of the Federal Council. Nothing pleased me so much as when I read of his appointment. Mr. Kia Peng is one who is full of public spirited ideas, full of the wish to protect those in not such a favourable position as himself and full of love and loyalty for the country in which he lives, and the tone and spirit of his speech is genuine to the core. I should like to make reference to the your benevolent Government who as I have already stated have stood by the mining industry on three occasions. This has not only assisted the miners but has allowed the smelters to continue their industry undisturbed and the various heads of Government during the period I have referred to deserve the greatest thanks for their courageous policy. In your present Chief Secretary the Hon. Mr. W. G. Maxwell you have man of marked ability and integrity, a man who has a staunch affection for the F.M.S., and I feel sure that so long as these States are under his guiding hands that the administration will be one of steady advancement in the many directions necessary. I fully sympathise with him over the present position, the result of the disturbed condition of the economics of the world, but the period of marking time may in the end be the best for us all. 0. I cannot conclude without again thanking you for this kind reception and for the expression of sympathy which have been of the greatest support to me during the trying period I have recently been passing. (applause) The proceedings then terminated.
The Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal. 30 June 1922 Vol. xz No.12 Selangor Miners’ Association Meeting. A.G.M. Hon. Mr. Kia Peng’s Interesting Review. (F.O.O.C.) Kuala Lumpur, June 8. Meeting held June 7th.Annual General Report “ Mr. J. A. Russell was elected President of this Chamber for 1921, but subsequently he resigned. The Hon. Mr. Choo Kia Peng, then Vice President was elected President, and Mr. A.A. Henggeler who was a Vice President before was elected to the place vacated by Mr. Kia Peng. On account of ill health, Mr. H.H. Robbins left for home and resigned from the committee…(Summary notes: price of tin, government purchasing till February. Price declined, panic, emergency meeting, sub committee formed, appeal. “Malayan Collieries Ltd. on being appealed to, consented to a rebate of 15 per cent on the price of coal supplied to miners so as to help them keep the mines going”. Removal of Government control on rice on first of May, price of firewood, tin slump affected labourers who could not find other work, large numbers seen begging and sleeping in the five footpaths and under the eaves of various institutions. Relief work started under management of Protectors of Chinese and various states in co-operation the Chinese towkays… lampan licences.. tailings, mining leases cancellations, deputation to Chief Secretary gravel pumps, tribunals, law, work for Malaya Borneo exhibition, farewell to Mr. Nutt, seven meetings during year, two meetings not quorate, 6 members resigned, 6 died, total membership of 81. Death of Mr. G. D. Lucas, Senior Warden of Mines. World economic uncertainty, precarious, mine closures, how long can we struggle on? No early revival of trade, cancellation of mining leases, representation to the Government not effective, Peretak problem, construction of common dam, list of committee members.)
The Straits Times, 15 November 1922, Page 10 MAMBAU TIN. The Original Estimates Largely Exceeded. The following is officially supplied by Eastern Tungsten Co., Ltd., Kuala Lumpur. The second annual general meeting of Mambau Tin, Ltd., was held at the registered offlce, 1-3, Old Market Square, Kuala Lumpur, on November 10, Mr. A. A. Henggeler presiding. (Summary:…estimates exceeded regrettable but unavoidable.. extra expenditure due to additional cost of plant and excessive charges in Australia..delay in getting started.. due to alterations in plant…loan arranged…trail runs in June.. dredging didn’t start till July.. working hours poor for first three months due to several breakdowns… recovery better than expected..now working upstream..daily output..making a profit.. thanks. Mr. Brunton now in charge..work under trying conditions…no directors’ fees…retiring director Mr. J. A. Russell was re -elected as were auditors.)
The Straits Times 3 November 1922 page 8 The directors of Mambau Tin, Ltd., report that the estimates for completion of the dredge have been greatly exceeded but arrangements were made for the necessary finance in the form of loans amounting to $90.000 which have to be repaid out of revenue. The board consists of Messrs. R.B.Bannon, J.L.Sime, J.A. Russell and A.A. Henggeler. In accordance with the articles Mr. J.A. Russell retires by rotation but being eligible offers himself for re-election.
The Straits Times, 12 January 1923, Page 2 0. TIN-MINING. Prize Model Exhibited At Rangoon. A correspondent who visited the room in St. Paul’s Fancy Fair, Rangoon, and who was interested in the ingenious method of tin-mining employed by Chinese 30 years ago and before the advent of steam power in a mine in Ipoh town, Perak (Malay Peninsula), writes to the Rangoon Gazette that the method of the tin mine was well worth looking at. The designing of the model was correct in all essential details and is owned by Towkay Ng Hoy. This gentleman was awarded silver cups and a gold medal in April this year, during the Malaya- Borneo Exhibition (mineral section), 1922, by Messrs. J. A. Russell and Co.; the Straits Trading Co., and the medal by Mr. Tan Hock Kheng, a wealthy merchant of Singapore. The model was worked by a small engine which was placed under the stand on which the model stood. One saw the crude ore being lifted by aerial baskets from a shafted hill bearing rich sand loaded with crude tin. These baskets conveyed the sand to the (palaung) working sluices where men worked it. It was then taken away in wheel barrows to the kongsi (huts where the coolies lived) where it was smelted and made into ingots weighing about 100lbs. An open cast mine and how it was worked was seen. The modelled Chinamen dug up the (karang) rich sand (with the “ mamooti” and others carried it up a narrow gang plank to the men in charge of the washing sluices. The model showing the working of an endless chain of buckets on a water-wheel to drain the mine underground was well executed. The coolie took his food, his smoke and his siesta at midday in a roughly constructed hut walled with laths of common timber and roofed with attap – a grass growing on the mine land. The methods employed though primitive were satisfactory, the 50 miners winning about 500lbs of tin per day. The tin market at the time was more satisfactory than at present.

Letter. From Acting Collector of Tax Revenue to Secretary to Resident. No. (5.) In L. 870/1922 Land Office, Kuala Lumpur 12th January, 1923 Renewal of mining Lease No. 2672 portion 2180 B. Mukim. Sir, I have the honour to submit an application dated 6.11.1922 by Mr. J. A. Russell for renewal of mining lease 2672 portion 2180 mukim of Batu which is due to expire on 2.11.1923. Attached tracing and record of work show the position and history of the land. Applicant owns mining lease 2616 portion 2637 adjoining. The Warden of Mines recommends renewal for 10 years. Notice has been served on the sublessee who has not yet replied. I recommend renewal for 10 years at a premium of $10/- per acre. I have the honour to be, sir, Your obedient servant, W.R. Boyd Ag. Collector of Land Revenue, Kuala Lumpur

Title and No. 2672 B:77 Portion: 2180 Date of Title: 2.11.14 Area: 20.0.00 Lessee: J. A. Russell Record of Work:




7 coolies O.M.


No coolies


18 coolies O.M.


See M.L. 2616


No coolies


10 coolies O.C.






No coolies


54 coolies O.C.


(signed 28. XI. 22)









The Straits Times, 24 October 1923, Page 2 Bakau Tin, Limited. The directors of Bakau Tin, Limited, in their report for the year ended June 30, state: - The net profit for the year amounts to $84,726.85 for the year which with $6,543.10 brought forward from the previous year makes a total of $9,665.76 available. Your directors recommend that a dividend of 7and half percent. be paid in respect of the year ended June 30, of, 1923, and sold in $7,500, and that the balance of $2,165. 76 be carried forward to a new account. Directorate: Since the close of the year Mr. J. A. Russell proceeded on leave and Mr. R. C. Russell was appointed his alternate. Mr. A. K. E. Hampshire has returned to Malaya and has resumed his seat on board as Mr. F. J. Gore’s alternate. The retiring director is Mr. F. J. Gore who being eligible offers himself for re-election. Auditors: Messrs. Neil and Bell retire and offer themselves for re-election.
To be continued.
Letter From District Officer Ulu Selangor to the Secretary to Resident. No. (5) in USL 86/23 District office, Rasa, 26 March 1923. Recommends issue of a new lease to Mr. J. A. Russell in place of the former Mining Lease No 2968, Mukim of Peretak. Sir, I have the honour to inform you that I have received from Mr. J. A. Russell an application for the renewal of mining lease No. 2968 Lot 991, area 52 acres 1 rood 20 poles in the mukim of Perak. 2. The date of the expiration of the lease is 7th August, 1923 and the date of the application of renewal is 24th January, 1923, so that provisions of section 23 of the Mining Enactment have not been fulfilled. 3. The present lease is owned by J.A Russell (1/3) and Mr. Chun Seng (2/3): the latter does not join in the application for renewal and is reported by the former to be an absconding compradore of the Banque de l’Indo Chine, Singapore, for whose arrest a warrant was issued some time ago. 4. The lessees have not complied with the labour conditions prescribed by the Mining Enactment; a copy of the census return of the labour force is enclosed. 5. The co-owner Ng Chun Seng owns Mining Lease 2379 Portion 940 adjoining, but the census is reported not to be sufficient to cover both leases. 6. I recommend a new lease be issued to the applicant on payment of $25/- per acre premium and the usual fees, when the existing lease has expired. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, ?JMiron District officer Ulu Selangor.

MOKK 71/23
Mining Lease No. 2968  Portion No. 991
Date of Title. 7.8.18  Area . 52a 1r. 20p.
Lessee J. A. Russell 1/3 Ng Chun Seng 2/3
Record of Work.
Date.            Notes.

22.11.18 40 coolies lampan
26. 5. 19. 30 chabut coolies lampan
24.11.19. 30          ditto
22.6.20.    34           ditto
25.11.20.  19         ditto
14.6. 21.   12         ditto
8.12.21.     8         ditto
5.6.22.       no work






















1.50 1/2







32.09 1/2


















13.42 1/2











6.46 1/2







6.47 1/2







15.34 1/2


20.72 1/2







6.07 1/2









4.40 1/2


14.36 1/2







7.87 1/2


11.21 1/2









2.57 1/2


5 1/2





15.76 1/2






Document in the National Archives of Malaysia Sel. 1639/23


Document in the National Archives of Malaysia SEL: SEC 286/1923 Mining Lease No. 2672 Batu Mukim: Renewal of Mr. J. A Russell.
A 1920 advert for J. A. Russell and Co. show them to be Managing Agents for the Serendah Hydraulic Tin Mining Co., Bakau Tin Ltd. and Secretaries to Eastern Tungsten Co.
Malayan Tin and Rubber Journal Vol. XIII No. 10, 31 May 1924, p. 629-631 . Selangor Miners’ Association. The Annual Report. Protest Against Increased Rates and Charges. (Summary: Report for year ended Dec 31 1923, tin slump, appeal to members for extra subs, draft labour code affecting miners, control of tin prices to stop them going down, contracts with coolies, new land enactment, increased government charges on exports and imports, new railway tariff, charges on mining land, forfeiture of leases, price of tin, cost of production, rice, labour, workmen’s compensation. General outlook, “ Visits to the mines. - Visits to the Malayan Collieries together with its Match Factory, the Rawang Tin Ltd., and Yukon Gold Company’s Mines Ampang, were arranged by the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines, and the members, who visited these mines, enjoyed it immensely and came away much impressed with the up to date machinery and the hospitality of their hosts” (Summary cont. Visit to H.M.S. Hood and Repulse. Membership, meetings presidency.)

JBM. No.(2) in U.S.L. 521/24 DISTRICT OFFICE, Rasa, 11th October, 1924. Application from Messrs. J.A.Russell and Ho Man for renewal of Mining Leases 3269, 3406, 5085 and 5405 Rawang Mukim. Sir, I have the honour to submit an application from Messrs. J.A.Russell and Ho Man for the renewal of the following leases, a tracing of which is attached:



Lease No.

Portion No.




Date of



























The date of application for renewal is 15. 8. 1924. 2. These leases form part of a scheme for working out the Kanching valley and the scheme comprises portions 1539,91,179,161,962,821,852,197,184,1725,964,966 and 921 having a total area of 236 acres 1 rood 27 poles. 3.The labour force employed on these leases comprises 966 “Nai Cheng" coolies, 294 "Kongsi Kong” coolies, 4 puddlers, 5 winches, 10 engines equal to 532 H.P. and16 chabut coolies. Vide labour records attached. 4.The Assistant Warden of Mines recommends renewal of these leases. I recommend renewal of the leases on the following terms: Period - Fifteen years Special Condition - No mining by hydraulic methods whether under pressure or otherwise shall be permitted upon any part of the land comprised in these leases., I have the honour to be , Sir, Your obedient servant,?Whillington District Officer, Ulu Selangor. To, The Secretary to Resident, Selangor.

C.H.K. M.O.R. No. 118/24. Title No. M.L.3085 Rawang Mukim. Portion No. 1539 Date of title 1.4.20 Former title M.C.1212 of 28.8.28 Area. 12a. lr. 20p. Lessee Lim Kak. Sublesse No.9/24 To Ho Man on 2.7.24. Record of work.




17 chabut coolies lampan


no work


no work


5 chabut  coolies open cast


no work

15. 6. 21

no work

8. 12. 21

No work


No work

28. 10. 22

No work

28. 5. 25

No work

26. 10. 23

No work

10. 6. 24

No work

Special condition - open cast & shafting only Title No. M.L. 3269 Rawang Mukim. Portion No.91 Former title No. M.L. 398 of 29.9.99 Date of title 16.12.20 Area. 12a. 2r. 32p. Lessee Ho Man and J.A. Russell. Subleases No. 9/24 To Ho Man on 2.7.24. Record of work.



18. 12.  20

54 coolies 3 Bengali  watchmen 2 gravel pumps 1 monitor 3 engines 120 H.P. open cast.


33 coolies kongsi kong 1 Bengali watchman 3 engines160  H.P

24. 11. 21

100 coolies Kongsi kong 1 Bengali watchman 1  engine 40 H.P.

9. 6. 22

82 coolies kongsi kong 65 coolies tribute 1 engine 40 H.P. 2 stamps 1 H.P. open cast & shafting.


3. 11. 22

140 coolies 1 Bengali watchman 1 engine 40 H.P. Open cast, shafting & fossicking.


13. 5. 23


98 coolies kongsi kong 27 coolies chabut 1 engine 36 H.P. 2 Bengali watchmen open cast.

21. 11. 23

704 coolies open cast 6 engines 260 H.P.

18. 6. 24

966 coolies Nai-chiang 294 coolies kongsi kong 4 puddlers 5 winches 10 engines 532 H.P. 16 coolies chabut open  cast.

M.O.R.No.118/24. Title No. M.L.3405 Rawang Mukim Portion No. l79 Former title No. M.L.850. Date of title 8. 3. 23 Area. 6a. 0r. 10p. Lessee Ho Man and J. A. Russell Subleases No.9/1924 To Ho Man on 2.7.24 Record of Work




no work     (vide M.L.3269)


" "


" "

Title No. M.L.3406 Rawang Mukim. Portion No.161 Former title No. M.L.906 Date of title 8. 3. 23. Area. 8a. Ir. 35p. Lessee Ho Man and J.A. Russell Subleases No.9/24 To Ho Man on 2.7.24. Record of work



14. 5. 23

no work  (vide M.L.3269)

26. 10. 23

" "

10. 6. 24

" "

W.B. Hawkins Assistant warden of Mines, RAWANG. This is the labour Record referred to in my letter dated 11/X/1924 in correspondence No. USL 521/1924 (signed) ?Willington District Officer Ulu Selangor. Document in the National Archives of Malaysia: Sel Sec. 3859/24





THE MALAYAN TIN AND RUBBER JOURNAL. 17/5/1916. No. 10. Vol. V CORRESPONDENCE F. M. S. CHAMBER OF MINES TO THE EDITOR, The Malayan Tea and Rubber Journal. A Letter criticising the F.M.S. Chamber of Mines can be read on the 1916 sources page.